Temperate Deciduous Forest.

Location

  • Most of Europe
  •  Japan
  • China

Climate

  • rainfall all year round
  • 4 distinct seasons 
  • warm summers, cool winters

Soil

  • Rich in soil with lots of nutrients because of leaf litter in Autumn
  • Brown Earth Soil. 
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Case Study - New Forest.

Location - Hampshire

Ways the Forest is used - timber products
                                         farming
                                         20 million visitors a year
                                         recreation - cycling, walking etc.
                                         50,000 tonnes of timber produced a year.

Ways the forest is used sustainably - areas cleared of tree are replanted/restored.
                                                        - walkers/cyclists stick to their paths.
                                                        - no dogs allowed near wildlife for safety.
                                                        - visitors encouraged to take litter.

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Tropical Rainforest.

Location

  • Central america
  • The amazon
  • South east asia

Cilmate

  • hot and wet
  • no defitnite seasons
  • plenty of rainfall

Soil

  • red soil called latosol very rich in iron
  •  roots shallow due to lack of nutrients down below.
  • rain dissolves + wahses away nutrients called leaching

Vegetation

  • emergents are the tallest trees which grow to get sunlight.
  • lianas loop round tree trunks to catch sunlight
  • buttress roots stop tree from falling
  •  leaves have drip tips to shed heavy rainfall
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Hot Desert

Location

  • North africa
  •  middle east
  •  south west USA
  • large parts of australia.

Climate

  • very little rainfall
  • once every 2-3 years.
  • extreme temps from 5degrees - 45degrees.
  • 2 seasons a year - winter+summer

Soil

  • shallow
  • gravelly
  • not fertile due to no leaf fall
  • can soak up water rapidly.

Vegetation

  • cacti - swollen stems to store water +thick waxy skin, and small spiky leaves to reduce water loss.
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Hot desert case study - Sonoran Desert. Rich.

Location

  • Arizona, USA.

Economic uses

  • agricultural production
  • 2007 marana hosted golf's championship
  • wheat is grown and exported to Italy to make pasta
  • families have migrated to town to work in cotton fields.

Challenges

  • threats to wildlife habitats
  • physical extremes of the climate

Sustainable Managment.

  • home design recommendation to conserve energy + water.
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Hot desert caste study - Thar desert. Poor.

Location

  • Rajasthan, India

Economic uses 

  • farming to produce food to farmer and family.
  • farming to sell crops and make profit.
  • local people benefit by acting as guides to tourists.

Challenges

  • soil erosion can damage vegetation and soil take years to reform
  • population is growing and can cause pressure on desert
  • the enviroment can be too fragile for tourism.

Sustainable Management.

  • conserving human resources to restore ecological balance.
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