- Attention is selective
- in order to be consiously processed we must focus attention on the core message
- Advertisers must understand what grabs attention in order to persuade us
- However not all info must be consiously processed in order for it to be remebered, can be pre-attentively processed.
- Salience: make adverts more in your face, unavoidable, viewers more likely to process content.
- Affect: adverts with irritating soundtracks can be effective way to increase public awareness ( e.g go compare)
- Visual cues: colour important. Gorn et al found pastel colours preffered as they make viewers feel relaxed, rich tones produced excitement. match image they wish to create for product use right colours. visual images used, require less mental effort, effective for pre-verbal kids.
Behavioural route (classical conditioning)
- Advertisers use classical conditioning to persuade viewers
- repeatedly pair product with positive stimulus hoping viewer will associate the two, influencing purchasing choice
- Hope that on the aisle when viewer sees product they will remember images of blue skies etc triggering positive feelings, making them purchase.
- puppy (ucs) = ucr (so cute) + tissue (ns) eventually product will trigger so cute!
Social learning theory
- celebs model product. if viewer sees role model associated with product, viewer will desire product in order to be like them. Imitation.
- Over lifetime susceptibility to impression via models changes therefore advertisers must consider age of target audience.
- Corroborated by Pine and Nash found children who watched more commercial tv asked for more items on christmas list compared to matched group of swedish who asked for less. Ban on advertising to under 12's in sweden.
Mc Guire's Theory
- Sequential approach. Argues successful advertising passes through stages of decision-making at end viewer makes purchase
1) Exposure: broadcast through various mediums. For maximum exposure ads co-ordinated, so when channel hopping viewers forced to watch ad.
2) Attention: grab attention with music or comedy etc
3) Comprehension: knowing what is said more important than belief in message
4) Yield: viewer accepts message, requires belief
5) Retention: viewer must remember message. ads use package design etc to aid retention by increasing familiarity. Succesfully passing through stages leads to effective tv persuasion.
- media cultivates beliefs and perceptions of the world.
- indirect exposure accounts for effectiveness of Tv in persuasion
- advertisers create broad climate relating to product, i.e health, once this is cultivated persuasion begins. (e.g water is healthy, then introduce evian, people persuaded to buy product)