TECTONICS REVISION

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

CRUST - thin solid layer of rock which floats on top of the mantle.

MANTLE - thickest layer within the Earth composed of semi-molten rock.

OUTER CORE - layer of molten iron and nickel which surrounds the inner core.

INNER CORE - ball of solid iron, nickel and radioactive material which generates heat.

(http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/c8d3da857120b5167d106b33dca53abbf3bbf425.png)

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Convection Currents

(http://image.slidesharecdn.com/tectonics-140517041459-phpapp02/95/tectonics-5-638.jpg?cb=1400300177)

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TYPES OF PLATE BOUNDARY - Conservative

Two plates moving past each other causing earthquakes

(http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/859fd5a69269cc266396319515a05c9aacf9f41e.png)

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Destructive/Covergent

Oceanic plate is subducted beneath the continental plate = earthquakes and volcanic erupstions.

(http://a.files.bbci.co.uk/bam/live/content/zft2hyc/large)

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Constructive/Divergent

Two plates moving apart resulting in the creation of new land.

(http://a.files.bbci.co.uk/bam/live/content/zs67tfr/large)

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Collision

Two continental plates moving towards each other resulting in the formation of mountains.

(http://a.files.bbci.co.uk/bam/live/content/z8y8mp3/small)

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VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

CONE VOLCANO - lava is very viscous so creates a steep triangular volcano which experience volcanic eruptions.

SHIELD VOLCANO - lava is very runny so covers large areas, resulting in large volcanoes with gently sloping sides. 

ACTIVE - likely to erupt again in the near future.

DORMANT - unlikely to erupt but does have the potential to erupt again.

EXTINCT - volcanoes that are extremely unlikely to erupt again.

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EARTHQUAKES

MAGNITUDE - the strength of earthquakes is measured on the Richter Scale.

MANAGING THE IMPACTS

- Emergency plans: many countries will train their emergency services so they know how to respond to a tectonic disaster.

- Education: MEDCs educate their population so that they do not panic during a disaster.

- Buildings: MEDCs design buildings to withstand earthquakes using shock absorbers, cross-bracing. counterweights and reinforced windows. 

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LIVING WITH TECTONIC HAZARDS

WHY DO PEOPLE LIVE NEAR TECTONIC HAZARDS?

- Fertile Soil: (VOLCANOES ONLY) ash adds nutrients to the soil which improves farming conditions.

- Lack of Risk: many either do not understand the risk or believe there is no risk.

- No Choice: many cannot afford to move or have nowhere else to move.

- Family Ties: people are emotionally attached to the area.

- Economic Activity: the scenic lanscape attracts tourists which brings money. 

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