Tectonic Case Studies





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Turkish Earthquake - 1999

The earthquake in 1999 caused a lot of problems, althought the epi centre was closer to Adapazari Izmit shockwaves went as far as Bolu.


  • Hundreds of aftershocks
  • Death rate of 2000 on the night alone
  • People found themselves trapped under collapsed buildings as they were poorly built and old
  • Roads and bridges were destroyed
  • Powerlines were cut across the larger areas of Turkey
  • Fire broke out in the Izmit oil refinery which caused economic loss


  • Reserve workers teared through rubble with their bare hands
  • People pulled bodies out of collapsed buildings
  • Massive rescue effort, recovery teams were overwhelmed
  • Specialist teams moved into worst areas with hi - tec equipment and sniffer dogs
  • Makeshift hospitals set up among the ruin


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Turkish Earthquake - 2011

Magnitude of aftershock - 5.4


  • 432 death toll
  • 1,352 were injured in the disaster
  • Buildings were converted to rubble
  • Epi - Centre of the aftershock in Degirmenozu
  • Prisoners set fitre to a jail and fought jail guards


  • Preganant woman with two children pulled out of rubble among others
  • Rescure teams with sniffer dogs searched through rubble
  • Crans lifted concrete
  • Residents digged with shovels
  • 12,000 tents were delivered by Turkish officals
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Sichuan Earthquake - 2008

Date: 12th May 2008

Magnitude: 7.9

Sichuan south east of China - boundary between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate.


  • Death toll approx 69,000
  • 18,000 missing
  • 374,000 injured
  • Landslides blocked rivers leading to fears of flooding.


  • Army forces and volunteers searched for survivers but access was difficult
  • Chinese prime minister released posters asking for volunteers
  • 20 helicopters assigned to rescue an relief
  • Chinese government pledged a $10 million rebuilding fund and banks wrote off debts by survivors.
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Japen Tsunami Effects - 2011

Date: 11th March 2011

Short term effects

  • 4000 roads, 78 roads and 29 railways destroyed
  • Fukushima nuclear plant was damaged - Radio active cloud escaped from the powerplant after the waves
  • 66 foot dock was ripped loose by the waves

Long Term Effects

  • Tomioka community of 16,000, empty after nuclear disaster
  • More then 330,000 still living in temp accomadation I year later
  • Killed almost 16,000 people
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Japen Tsunami Responces - 2011

Short Term Responces

  • Shelterboxes used to provide emergency assistance in badly effected areas
  • Shelterboxes made a make shhift evacuation centre in a school gymnasium
  • Relief organisations provided food and shelter
  • Kamaishi's temple soon became a refugee centre

Long Term Responces

  • The Tohoko kids project provided crises counselling support
  • They also worked directly with affected orphanages
  • In Kamaishi their is a daily radio broadcast to keep spirts high.
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Nyirangongo Eruption Effects - 2002

Nyirangongo in the Democratic Republic of Congo is situated in a chain of volcanos called the African Rift Valley formed on a constructive plate boundary.

Short Term Effects

  • Lava flowed across goma airports runway
  • Warnings had bee given and 400,000 people were evacuated from the city across the Rwanda border and neighbouring Giseryi during the eruption.
  • Lava flowed through the city of Goma which is 10km away from the vocano and has an population of 1 million.

Long Term Effects

  • Goma town was split in half by the lava flow. 15m cubic yards of lava flowed through Goma
  • Roughly 147 people died in the eruption from asphyxiation due to the lava and earthquakes
  • At least 15% of Goma comprising 4,500 buildings were destoyed, leaving about 120,000 people homeless.
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Nyiragongo Eruption Responces - 2002

Short term responces

  • Refugee camps were set up in Rwanda
  • UNICEF co ordinated the responce to the eruptopn, aid was flown into Rwansa and then transported by the trucks to Goma
  • Food aid was given out by the world food programme freely so everyone had access to it.

Long Term Responces

  • Water had to be supplied to the area in tankers
  • Church and school buildings re paired and opened again.
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Eyjafjallajokull Eruption - 2010

A fissure eruption on the 15th April 2012, also a sub - glacial volcano. Iceland is located on the Mid - Atlantic Ridge on tectonic plates - on a constructive boundary, the eruption occured under a glacier, the water cooled the lava this quickly lead to a massive gas stream and particle clouds.

Short Term Effects

  • 150m thick ice cap melted
  • Airspace closed across much of Europe since Thursday lunchtime. At least 17,000 flights a day were cancelled
  • 20 farms destoyed
  • Destroyed parts of main route 1 road

Long Term Effects

  • Cost to airline industry estimated to be $2 billion
  • Fruit and veg imports into UK stopped - economic impact on the growers
  • 6 days of no flights - 95,000 wer cancelled.
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Eyjafjallajokull Responces - 2010


  • 20 Farm families were evacuated
  • Fine volcanic ash silted up the rivers, habours closed and bridges were in danger of being damaged
  • Rivers were still blocked 1 year later, the government has had too pay to dredge them to allow rivers to flood amd create new paths

Management of the hazard

  • Iceland is a MEDC and very experienced with volcanic eruptions
  • Wide range of high tec equipment and computer models to monitor seismic activities and predict eruptions
  • Warning systems - sends texts to all residents with 30min warning
  • Well prepeared emergency services
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