tectonic shizz 129

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2004 Indian ocean tsunami

The tsunami was caused by an earthquake on the destructive plate boundary where the indian plate was subducted under the sunda plate, after the pressure that bukit up was released the sea floor rose 3m which displaced roughly 5km in depth of water. effected 14 counrties.

This event was so destructive as there was a very powerful earthquake                 9 on richter scale caused destruction of buildings ect,

Also the secondary effects such as the tsunami that was created caused huge damage over a vast area. the impacts generally decreased with increased distance from the epicentre,the destructive wave of water and deadbre raged havoc

Bangladesh was directly north of the subduction zone so escaped the tsunami

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Multiple hazard zones - California

Multiple harzard zoneTraditionally multiple hazard zones (MHZs) are considered to be regions or parts of the world that are exposed to a range of hazards(often a combination of meteorological, climatic and geomorphic impacts).

California - example of a multiple hazard zone:

  • tectonically active (earthquakes) - lies on the san adreas fault line between the pasific and the NA plate on a conservative plate margin.
  • prone to droughts through hot climate, increases chance of wild fires.
  • change in climate from el ninio and la nina, can cause floods- landslides and mud slides

capacity to cope - very good as they have good governence on how to cope with the hazards from building regualtions (earthquake resistant buildings, clear radius around house to prevent forrest fires) to planning (educating the populus, grab bags (christchurch) and they also have very good technology to predict and prepare for these hazards.

https://getrevising.co.uk/diagrams/the_holderness_coast_2 (very good mind map)

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Christchurch New Zealand 2011 earthquake

New Zealand is a MEDC which meant that it had a high capacity to cope as it was prepared for the earthquake. The gov. managed the situe very well via things like grab bags and well educated populus in drills (what to do) which minimised casualties. also land use planning helped prevent more loss of life.

It is another example of a multiple hazard zone as it has earthquakes, floods and volcanic activity (very rare) and all of their knock on effects such as landslides and for new zealand especially liquification.

6.1 on richter scale, buildings, roads (infrustructure) destroyed, 185 dead 6000 injured, economic damage > $20 billion, also rugby world cup had to be moved further impacting economy. 80% of CBD buildings destroyed (impacts)

Mitigation: cone penetrometer testing (CPT) was carried out to search for susceptability of soil to liquification, this was a quick and inexpensive form of mitigation. retro fitting buildings, building new buildings with flexible bearings rather then straight into teh ground so they can withstand more siemic pressures.

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Italian earthquake 2016

3 earthquakes occured in 2016 the first with 6.2 richer scale and 298 deaths, second with 6.1 and 1 death and the last 6.6 on richter scale and 2 deaths (shows high capacity to cope).

Impacts of all 3:

4000 made homeless, infrastructure destroyed, 300 historic homes detroyed (tourism damage), hostpitals and schools destroyed.

Tectonics:

3 different plates move in the area simultaneously - eurasian and african plates both move in a north-easterly direction and african plate is converging and subducting under the eurasian plate. Tyrrhenian basin to west in med sea is opening pulling the apennies apart creating extension faults. adria plate roatating anticlockwise and subducting beneath eurasian plate. intra plate movement responsible for formation of apennies (fold mountains).

poor planning (estimated 70% of buildings not built to seismic standards), corrupt building companies dont build buildings that comply with the regulations.

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Haiti 2010 earthquake

7 on richter scale and 9 on macalli scale, destructive plate margin in the caribean and the 2 conservatve strike-slip faults on the island itsef that cause most impact.

Primary effects:

  • 230,000 people died and 3 million effected, 1.5 million made homeless
  • factories were damaged and workers crushed or injured (loss of life and industry)
  • 250,000 residential buldings and 30,000 comercial buildings had collapsed or servearly damaged
  • 4,000 prisoners escaped from their prison being damaged/destroyed
  • 70% of buildings destroyed
  • $8 billion damage cost
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multiple hazard zones - Vanuatu

Vanuatu is a group of small islands (65 inhabited) 1800km off NE australia and in 2015 was ranked the most at risk country in the world with earthquakes, volcanoes, tropical cyclones and impact of sea level rise.

The tectonics in the area are complicated with several micro-plates and subduction of the australian plate under the pasific plate.

The exposure of the country to hazard is demonstrated by:

  • cyclone pam in 2015
  • frequent strong earthquakes e.g. 7.1 magnitude scale earthquake 2015
  • volcanic eruptions e.g. mount yasur (405m high composite cone) active from 2013 emmiting ash and lava bombs in strombolian eruptions and mount Gaua (979m high sheild volcano with a caldera 8x6km active from 2011)
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Eyjafjallajokull iceland volcano 2010

Impacts:

  • when it erupted 110 million meters cubed of ash was emmitted in one week.
  • this had global impacts (flights over NA and Europe) as it grounded planes leaving people stranded in countries, caused the flights industry millions and also the tourism industry millions in lost earnings, total economic impacts of >3 billion. (fresh fish in iceland couldnt be stored, uk music bands couldnt get to california for festival, airline slost 200 mill per day, perishable Kenyan agricultural products for the UK rotted in warehouse workers were temporarily unemployed, car parts didnt reach BMW production down by 7000 vehicles in one week)
  • regional effects also as the ash caused respiratry problems for the locals, contaminated water supplies due to the fact that the ash contained flouride
  • Jokulhaups - glacial outburst floods that caused huge destruction
  • the ash formed a thin layer that compacted due to rainfall in iceland, this destroyed crops and animals had to be kept inside.
  • flooding occured due to blocked water ways by the ash and added water from jokulhaups
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Japan 2011 earthquake and tsunami

9 on richter scale caused ground shaking and tsunami

Primary effects:

  • destroyed docks and transported boasts miles inland
  • 15,845 killed, 3,375 missing, 5,894 injured, 128,479 properties tottaly destroyed, 3,918 roads damaged and 78 bridges damaged
  • fukushima reactor meltdown clasified as a level 7 nuclear accident. the reactors did shut down when the earthquake struck but the 15m tsunami wave flooded the reactor buildings shutting off electrical supplies to generators that powered the cooling systems. 3 reactros meted down ad released radioactivty into the air during explosions and also into groundwater which eventuially reached the pasific ocean. (following this germany decided to rule out nuclear energy by 2022 closing 17 reactors, 2000 residents were evacuated and still arent allowed to return to the area due to radioactivity.
  • ground subsided by 0.6m along a 400km stretch of coastline which allowed the tsunami to overtop their defences like the huge sea wall.
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Multiple hazard zone - Philippines

Country of over 7000 islands 1000 inhabited, pop= 102 million with density 332 people per km squared. located on the west side of pasific ocean, part of ring of fire, subduction of philippine plate and sunda plate.

In 2009 goverment passed "Disater Risk Management Act" to help increase resilience and reduce risk. they removed illegal settlers from areas prone to hydrometorological hazards. Set up more monitory systems for volcaneos and meteroogical systems and they are trying to monitor the faults for earthquakes.

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Modification

Earthquakes- very hard to mitigate as they are hard to predict and are too powerful to modify

volcanoes:

  • Mount etna Italy 1983 they sprayed water to solidify lava flows (also happend in Heimaey Iceland 1973) thyey cut diversion channels.
  • draining crater lakes to reduce risk of lahars (mount Pinatubo Philipines 2001)
  • you can monitor volcanoes and predict when they are going to erupt and evacuate people to mitigate the risk of disastor.

monitoring:

  • early warning systems like Japan for tsunamis
  • volcanoes can be monitored by using lasers to moniter the shape of the ground for bulges due to magma, temperatures and seismic activity can be closely monitored also (mt s.t helens 1980)

Hazard Management Cycle                                                       Parks model - response curve
pressure and release model (PAR)                                           Hazard Profiles

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Mt st Helens 1980 eruption

Primary effects:

  • 57 people died (low due to the evacuation of the area after close monitoring)
  • businesses were destroyed and toursim effected
  • national park was now a waste land
  • the poisonous gas's effected peoples respiritury systems
  • infrastructure was destroyed, roads bridges etc
  • pyroclastic flow destroyed most of landscape especially vegitation

Secondary effects:

  • vegitation couldnt grow took decades for it to grow back
  • the ash acted as a firtiliser to the soil (+ve)
  • ash blocked rivers and contaminated water supplies and damaged the fishing industry and caused flooding which inturn damaged crops
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L'Aquila Italy 2009 earthquake

Primary effects:                                                                                                 6.3 richter scale

  • 308 died, 1,500 injured by falling buildings (bad governance and loose planning laws (corruption?))
  • 65,000 people displaced
  • historic building and monuments destroyed- tourism damaged 
  • infrastructure destroyed- buildings, roads, bridges etc
  • the modern part of L'Aquila is meant to be earthquake-resistant (buildings) but a number of these buildings were destroyed by the earthquake like the san salvadore hospital

Secondary effects:

  • after shocks after the earthquake
  • buildings sturctural damage casued some to collpase overtime or demolished/ rebuilt

Coruption - PM Berlusconi was criticised for initially rejecting international aid offered bymore then 20 countries as he said "italians are a proud people with the facilities to cope with this disaster" but then quickely altered his position in order to seek European Union disaster funding.

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Japans New growth strategy

New growth strategy:

aimed to grow the ciountryis economy and development. gov pledged £190 billion over 10 years to fund this. central to this strategy is special zones for reconstruction. the aim of these is to provide incentives to attract investment, both in terms of business and reconstruction into the Tohoku region.

the incentives to attract investment include:

  • special deregualtion of planning permition and bureaucracy o enable rapid rebuilding of housing industry, medical services, nursing homes etc.
  • tax incentives to promote employment and industrial activities
  • interest substitues for loan-lenders

To further increase the chances of its success, the scheme is open to involvment from foreign goverments and businesses.

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Bam 2003 earthquake

location - southern Iran, magnitude 6.6, upper middle income country so why was the impact for a relitively small and copable earthquake so big?

Reasons for unexpectadly high impact:

  • 26,000 people died
  • occured at 5.26am when most people are asleep - increased effects
  • release of energy was directly under the city so high intensity= max damage to buildings
  • very old buildings so the siesmic waves easly collapsed them (some 2400 years old)
  • recent construction bad quality due to Iran seismic building code being enforced ineffectively
  • many wooden structures were already damaged from termites
  • 3 main hospitals destroyed, 20% of health professionals killed, rest couldn't care for others due to injuries.Medical provision was bad as lack of training to deal with lage-scale traumas
  • search + rescue - at first emergency services struggled with destruction of their infrastructure to
  • cold temps - hypothrmia killed a lot of people that were trapped and couldnt get help

The earthquake became a disaster becasue the complex set of interactions.(Hazard risk equation)

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Nepal earthquake 2015

developing country with pop of 26.5 million roughly. On april 2015 a magnitude 7.8 earthquake
Impacts:

  • 9,000 killed
  • 22,000 injured
  • >500,000 houses collapsed or seriously damaged

Drivers of the disaster:

  • Nepal is a multiple hazard zone, steep mountain landscape - landslides, debris and floods, earthquakes
  • Low level of development, much of loocal earthquake science is out of date- current seismic hazard map roughly 20 years old.
  • high population density in areas Kathmandu Valley pop 2.5 milion (13,000 per km squared) growing ny 4% a year, one of the fastest urbanising areas in south asia. 85% of countries pop is rural, much of economy primary indstry
  • pop vulnerabl, poor people socially excluded less able to absorb shocks then well positioned rich people. may build their own house - built without following codes.
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Modification - Japan

Japan:

  • since 2004 the regional train operator in teh tohoku area (Japanese railway east) has invested £500 million in upgrading earthquake measurement equipment along its routes. this involved fitting them with early warning systems and cutting off the electricity in 2 seonds to ensure that the trains were stationary when the first tremors hit and didnt derail. within 2 seconds of the 2011 earthquake being detected and 80 seconds before the main tremors hit, all 27 shinkansen trains in the area had stopped without derailment and with no injuries or deaths.
  • In 2008 Japan carried out a huge earthquake emergency drill called "michinoku alert", it involved 18,000 participents in 22 towns throught tohuko region.
  • (Japan 1995 earthquake wasnt predicted and all scientists resigned as it took them by surprise) and (2011 Japan earthquake wasnt predicted only the early warning system helped)
  • japans early warning systems and emergency driils mitigate against the hazard
  • vast coastal defences such as sea walls that mitigate against hazards like tsunamis
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Japan 2011 secondary effects

  • soil liquification - occured mostly in reclamed land areas around Tokyo, damaged more then 1000 buildings
  • so many buildings were destroyed in japan that chemicals from the debris were released into the atmosphere, affecting stratospheric ozone and global warming.
  • tsunami was the biggest secondary effect which reached a max hieght of 39m and traveled up to 10km inland carrying debree e.g. boats and rubble etc.
  • massive coastal flooding as a consequence of the tsunami flowing inland, the earthquake also casued localised flooding
  • shipping disrupted due to destruction of ports (economic loss and impacts on food)
  • agriculture was badly effected as soil was contaminated by salt water which also desrtoyed current crops.
  • the damage cost estimated at $300 billion, Japans GDP shrunk by 3.7% in the month of the event.
  • power had been cut so the buildings used for shelter werent heated and with temps reaching -4 degrees at night, many shelters became damp due to flooding, this made hypothermia and respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia a real threat.
  • dropped japans stock market prices by 5-10%
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Japan 2011 immediate responses

Immediate responses:

  • aircrafts were made airborn to survey the devistation and identify priority areas for emergency aid. within 30 mins of the earthquake, 11 military aircraft had responded and identified communities that were completely cut off.
  • rescue and treatment of survivors
  • the JSDF moved into the ground and within 2 days all debris had been cleared and emergency goods could be deliverd twice a day
  • sheer scale of disaster meant that the emergency response teams were overstretched and inadiquately supplied and trained. also the damaged communication and electricity wires made communication difficult so teh co-ordination of rescue teams was difficult
  • an estimated 452,000 people were in evacuation shelters within days of the disaster, however many were inadequate in terms of provisions of blankets, water etc.
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Japan 2011 Long-term responses

  • since 2004 the regional train operator in teh tohoku area (Japanese railway east) has invested £500 million in upgrading earthquake measurement equipment along its routes.
  • rebuild infrastructure ineffected regions
  • restrore and improve the health of the economy as a whole
  • repair and reopen transport links
  • joinnt effort by the JSDF and the US army restored sendai airports runway in 19 days of the disator
  • focused massively on restoring the telecommunication, energy and electricity supply, within 7 months 98% of water supply, 96% of electricity supply and 99% of landlines were restored
  • the immediate response to the Fukushima melt down was to clear a 20km evacuation zone to reduce the threat of radiation exposure. 
  • the next priority was to get the remaining reactors into cold shutdown condition where temps are below 100 degrees, so water canbe collected and reused instead of boiling over and spreading radiation. within 7 months the reactors had been cooled an dstabalise, however the long term challenges remain; to remove the radioactive cojtamination of the surrounding air, water and land, and to monitor the reactors to ensure no more material is leaked.
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Multiple hazard zones - philippines

Hazards:

  • 37 volcanoes (18 currently active)
  • expirences numerous earthquakes most significant 1976 8 mangitude scale killed 6000, 85% of which were due to the following tsunami.
  • 2015 3rd most at risk country. densly populated adds to the risk, as does poverty
  • 74% of pop exposed to 2 or more hazards, average of 10 hazards a year
  • tropical cyclone (typhoon)
  • floods (river)
  • landslides
  • wildfires (very rare)
  • earthquakes can influence volcanoes by making them errupt - shown in 1990 7.8 magnitude warthquake caused a landslide on mount pinatubo volcano, 8 months later it showed signs of errupting after 500 year domance. (however due to monitoring of teh volcano thousands of people were evacuated and num of deaths was relitively small (800). Ash mixed with rainfall caused collapse of roofsm caused lahars when typhoons mixed with the pyroclastic deposits to cause lahars which caused hueg amounts of damage ($211 million)
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2004 Indian ocean tsunami 2

Impacts:

  • 280,000 people died
  • 1.7 million made homeless
  • buildings and infrastructure destroyed- siri lanka 1500 people killed on train
  • coastal towns destroyed along with their ports, boats carried miles inland with the fishing industry huge economic impact
  • rendered whole islands uninhabitable (maldives), damaged corals (through the waves and the objects they carried acting like a battering ram) which has knock on effects like food supply, farmland contaminated by salt water, the corals were already under stress from El Ninio warming during 1997-98 and human impacts like dynamite fishing, waste water and general acidification of the oceans.
  • took away a lot of sand from beaches leaving them defencless to errosion
  • economic costs of rebuilding and costs of lack of tourism which is the main source of income for many countries in the ragion especially the maldives.
  • effected the whole world with tourism costs
  • more then 1500 villages destroyed in Sumatra and more then 100 schools wrecked
  • drinking water contaminated by salt water- effects both environment and people
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2004Indian ocean tsunami 3

imediate and long- term respones:

  • 160 aid agencies became involed in the emergency respone
  • £7.5 billion was pledged in donations by goverments and individuals, UK pledged £75 million with £100 million donated by UK public, Austrailia donated $810 million, japan $500 million and World Bank offered $250 million 
  • united nations co-ordinated the development of a tsunami warning system for the indian ocean
  • rescue efforts made
  • food, water, shelter and other necessaties where given out.
  • gov's also donated their knowledge and staff e.g. UK and Austrailia science teams helping psychologically and physically injured people. also they indentified bodies and reunited them with their family members.

Countrys with magrove forrests at the coast were uneffecte as the magroves acted as a buffer from the waves

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Christchurch 2011 (NZ) 2

Immediate response:

  • search and rescue
  • providing aid like water, food and shelter
  • clearing roads
  • setting up temporary banks for the people

secondary response:

  • getting insurence companys to payout
  • reconstruction of destroyed infrastructure, this provided opportunity to redevelopment of the city (making the buildings safer)
  • getting aid from other counrties and NGO's like charities (More advice and support then money as New Zealdn is a MEDC so can support itself),
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2016 Italian earthquake 2

Immediate response:

  • search and rescue using sniffer dogs to find trapped people
  • providing aid (food shelter and water) 5000 people half volenteers responded in immediate aftermath
  • emergency funding 50million euros authorised by national goverment
  • also canceld taxes of residents most effected
  • more then 600 resturants across italy put pasta amatriciana on the menu and donated 2 euros from every order to red cross (huge aid schemes)

secondary response:

  •  rebuilding infrastructure
  • retrofitting old buildings to meet current standards (mitigation and prepardness)
  • monitorying hazard programs set up (however it is very difficult to monitor and predict earthquakes)
  • trying to make the people pay for earthquake insurence to minimise the amoubt of economic damage to the country (not likely as only 1% have volitary earthquake insurence compared to 80-85% in New Zealand) this would increase social resiliance
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Haiti 2010 earthquake 2

Secondary effects:

  • 52 after shocks all measuring 4.5 and above
  • thousands needed water, food, shelter and medical supplies
  • people roamed the streets with machetes looting and even stopping cars. the police arrested 50 people in an attempt to maintain order
  • disease spread through the country due to the thousands of dead bodies, poor sanitation, lack of clean water, lack of toilets.
  • outbreak of cholera was officially declared 8 months later which killed over a 1000 more and infected many more - 6,900 deaths due to cholera
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Haiti 2010 earthquake 3

Short term responses:

  • emergency teams were flown in with equipment to help deal with the injured/trapped people 
  • search and rescue for trapped people
  • giving out aid (most given by other countries)
  • 6 international and 8 Haitian medical teams addressed health needs for survivors through mobile medical clinics
  • restoring communication lines
  • tackling poor sanitation and getting rid of dead bodies to try and prevent spread of disease

Long term responses:

  • britain donated 23 million to haiti earthquake appeal
  • UK gov. trebbled its funding for the humanitarian response from 6.2 million to 20 ,illion to provide food, shelter, health care and relief work
  • millions of pounds where donated from private donations.
  • 3 ships with thousands of soldiers along with a team to restore air traffic control to airport
  • rebuilding industry and infrastructure, tourism and to reastablish farming
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Vanuatu 2

Also vulnrable due to:

  • isolated islands spread over large area (hard to get provide aid) (little space to relocate to safer places)
  • poverty $3,124 GDP per capita
  • stagnant human development index of 0.616 (131st position)
  • low capacity to cope - gov. unable to provide aid themselves, they rely on aid from ther countries like australia
  • capacity of people low due to poor education, lack of investment in healthcare and poor sanitation (only 50% of pop have an aduquete sewage system).
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Eyjafjallajokull 2010 volcano 2

Response:

  • cut chunks out of the road to allow the Jokulhaups flow througgh without washing away the roads.
  • distributed masks to the locals to prevent the inhailation of ash.
  • the euro commssion commited state aid to help them
  • rebuilding infrastructure and restoring damaged areas
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Modification 2

Tsumai's:

  • change the offshore coastal environment e.g. offshopre barriers such as Ofunato bay in Japan and have higher and stronger sea walls like Japan.
  • Indonesia plantyed 70,000 mangrove trees after 2004 tsunami, also a new high tech early warning system installed in 2008- example of disastor of mitigation as the warning systme didnt reach everyone, evacuation center were locked and people operating sirens fled, fortunetaly tehre was no tsunami due to horizontal movment instead of vertical, people didnt know about evacuation centres and routes.
  • early warning systems such as Japan 2011 to be able to warn the people and prapre or evacuate them

They are generated in a number of different ways, anything that brings a sudden, significant change to the volume of a localised area of the ocean basin can trigger one.
e.g. Lituya Bay Alaska 1958 earthquake triggered a rock slide of 1km cubed which fell into the bay, setting off a tsunami reaching over 500m high destroying trees off hills of the bay.
e.g. 1883 eruption of Krakatoa (Indonesia) and collapse of the caldera generated a tsunami reaching 35m high and killing 36,000 people

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Modification 3

Vulnerablity and resiliance:

  • prediction could cause problems as it makes peopel feel safe and could lead to complicity and lack of preperation and they can cause confusion
  • before events take place risk mapping is used to predict routes of lahars and areas of liquification. (christchurch)
  • land use zoning and plannig laws designed to keep people safe and out of harms way e.g. Italy mount Etna removed people from the 'blast zone'.
  • Technology can be used to modify places to increase resiliance and capacity to cope. earthquake prrof buildings, counter weight near top of Taipei 101 in taiwan, base insulators in new zealand, also shapes of bulidings like steep roof and no gutters so ash doesnt collect on the roof after volcanic eruption and cause collapse.
  • education of what to do e.g. drills like in christcurch where they had drills and were taught what to do and have things like grab bags
  • improve transport routes to aid evacuation e.g. San francisco established a regional catastrophic Earthquake mass transportation/evacuation plan.
  • importance of learing lessons from past hazards "build back better" in christchurch an Haiti
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Mt st Helens 1980 volcano 2

immediate response:

  • 8km exclusion zone
  • people were evacuated
  • mobalised helocopters for search and rescue
  • they were sent 2 million gas masks
  • displaced people were given shelter, water and food was also given out

Long term responses:

  • rebuild infrastructure
  • replant vegitation and restore the environment
  • recover the tourism industry
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L'Aquila Italy 2009 earthquake 2

Short-term respones:

  • digging people out of collapsed buildings and rubble
  • supplying medical equipment, food, water, shelter etc
  • clearing roads to get clear transport routes to hospitals
  • clearing the rubble and the mess to stop spread of disease (more prominant in poorer countries)
  • 40,000 people accomidated in tents 10,000 in hotels beyond teh disaster zone
  • prime minister Berlusconi channelled £26 million of national funding and support to the area
  • Poste Italiane sent mobile post offices to refugee camps to allow people to acces their money
  • 10,000 meals were provided by 16 italian red cross staffa nd 30 volunteers per day

Long term responses:

  • rebuild infrastructure
  • rtrofit old buildings (mitigate the effects of an earthquake)
  • USA offered 4 billion euroes to help rebuild the city
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chilie 2010 earthquake

8.8 on richter scale, location is the south west coast of south america

Primary Impacts:

  • 80% of pop effected
  • uplift and subsidence of land
  • 521 people killed, 56 missing, 12,000 injured, 0.8 million made homeless
  • £20 billion damage cost
  • buildings destroyed - 4,013 schools and 79 hospitals, other infrastructure damaged/destroyed - 1.5 million houses damaged (falling buildings trapped people inside)
  • transport became difficult as debrie blocked roads and fallen bridges/they were damaged or destroyed.
  • lead to damage to a chemical plant
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Chilie 2010 earthquake 2

Secondary Impacts:

  • chilles airline lost $25 million
  • people weft without water and electricity for 4 days
  • ports and harbours damaged due to secondary effect of tsunami
  • within 7 days 130 aftershocks were recorded - 15 above 6 on richter scale
  • landslides - blocked roads and caused other damage
  • tsunami caused huge coastal flooding - tourist industry damaged as many campsites were flooded
  • soil liquification - 4 8 story residential buildings serverely damaged (been built on a site of compacted sand, bad governance and poor planning laws)
  • soil liquification - 4 bridges damaged badly

Haiti 2010 killed 230,000 people 7 on richter scale whereas chillie was 8.8 and only killed 521 good comparison of how risks and be managed to decrease the size of the disaster (hazard risk equation). this also shows that chillie has learnt from its previous earthquakes and has mitigated against them to reduce the impacts.

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