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Aliphatic Compounds

  • Halogenoalkane --NH3/Ethanol --> Amine
  • Halogenoalkane --NaOH/H20/Reflux --> Alcohol
  • Alcohol --K2Cr2O7/H+ --> Primary (Distillation): Aldehyde 
                                          Secondary: Ketone
  • Ketone --NaBH4 --> Secondary Alcohol
  • Aldehyde --NaBH4--> Primary Alcohol
  • Aldehyde --K2Cr2O7/H+/Reflux--> Carboxylic Acid
  • Carboxylic Acid --Alcohol/H2SO4/Reflux --> Ester
  • Alcohol --Carboxylic Acid/H2SO4/Reflux --> Ester
  • Ester --H2O/H+ --> Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol
  • Ester --OH-/H2O --> Carboxylate (Salt COO-) + Alcohol
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Aromatic Compounds

  • Phenol --NaOH--> Sodium Phenoxide (Salt) + H2O
  • Phenol --Na--> Sodium Phenoxide (Salt) + H2
  • Phenol --3Br2(aq)--> 2,4,6-tribromophenol + 3HBr
  • Benzene --Cl2/AlCl3--> Chlorobenzene
  • Benzene --Br2/FeBr3--> Bromobenzene
  • Benzene --Conc.HNO3/Conc.H2SO4/50degreesC--> Nitrobenzene
  • Nitrobenzene --Sn/Conc.HCl/Reflux--> PhenylAMINE
  • Phenylamine --NaNO2/HCl(aq)/<10degreesC--> Diazonium salt (Benzenedizonium chloride)
  • Benzenedizonium chloride --Phenol/NaOH (alkaline conditions)--> Azo dye (-N=N-)
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Chirality In Pharmaceutical Synthesis

  • Inactive enantisomers can cause problems from birth defects to heart conditions.
  • The production of a single isomer causes some advantages:
    -Risks from undesirable side effects are reduced.
    -Drug doses are reduced as the other isomer isn't there now.
  • Modern chiral synthesis:
    -Using enzymes as biological catalysts for one isomer only.
    -Chiral pool synthesis, using the naturally occuring isomer.
    -Use of transition element complexes.
  • Furthermore Ibuprofen has an optical isomer, but so far doesn't cause adverse affect, and also doesn't limit dosage as the less efficient isomer is converted anyway. 
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