Synoptic Gospel

  • Created by: becca_102
  • Created on: 29-05-19 20:22

Morris 7 Elements

1) The general scheme of the Gospel is similar: Jesus had a ministry in Galilee, travels to Jerusalem and the passion takes place there.

2) There are passages that agree on wording: Matthew 9:6, Mark 2:10 and Luke 5:24 "But i want you to know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins".

3) In places Matthew and Mark agree in wording, different from Luke; elsewhere, Mark and Luke agree in wording, different from Matthew.

4) Matthew and Luke contain passages which Mark does not. Where Mark has 16 chapters, Matthew contains 28 and Luke has 24 chapters.

5) Some of these passages are similar but not identical (Matthew 5:3 and Luke 6:20)

6) Each synoptic Gospel has material that is unique to it.

7) Some of these events may take place in different context (Healing of the centurionss servant)

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How does the problem arise?

1) Some passages are almost the same word for word.

2) There are similarities in vocabulary and content uses i.e. events described, the order of events and details of Jesus ministry or teaching.

3) Which could be explained by someone accurately reporting his teachings (oral tradition passed down)

4) Synoptic means "seen together"

5) Contains some differences and some similarities.

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Priority Of Mark (1)

1) Almost the whole of Mark is contained in the other two. Only four paragraphs from Mark which has not been included.

2) The way these sections of Mark are used, spread out in Matthew and Luke, and mixed in with other materials, suggest they used Mark.

3) Mark has a-lot of pictorial detail that havd not been included in other synoptics. Clogg "the freashest and most life like of the three"

4) Matthew and Luke sometimes miss out details in Mark but do not always omit the same detail. They appear to have copied from Mark and missed out different bits while agreeing about the events.

5) Matthew and Luke follow Marks order of events after the birth narrative.

6) Mark is more honest about the failings of the disciples.

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Priority Of Mark (2)

7) Mark protrays Jesus' humanity more frankly e.g. reference to Jesus anger and grief at the Phraisees hardness of hard in Mark 3:5, Matthew and Luke do not include their reactions.

8) Matthew and Luke seem to improve upon Mark's Greek ambigous language.

9) Mark uses more vivid touches, "sitting down when he called the disciples"

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Two Source Hypothesis

- Holtzman 1863.

- Matthew and Luke both used Mark's Gospel and a hypothetical source called Q (from Quelle meaning 'source')

- Matthew and Luke share 250 verses not in Mark.

- Matthew and Luke follow Mark's order of events.

- Matthew includes 600 of 661 verses; 51% in the same words as Mark. Luke includes 350 verses from Mark, 53% of which are the same words.

- Matthew and Luke clear up ambiguous details in Mark and seems less 'primitive'

- Mark gives a more vivid, human picture of Jesus and vivid eyewitness detail.

- They sometimes omit different details from Mark but generally omit different details. 

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The Four Source Hypothesis

- Streeter 1924.

- Matthew and Luke used Mark as a source, which explains the similarities.

- Used Q as a source which explains similarities between Matthew and Luke in their extra material not present in Mark (250 verses)

- However, they have their own sources - M for Matthew's own source and L for Luke's. This explains the differences.

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Augustinian Hypothesis

- It is supported by the historical evidence of the Church Father - Irenaeus, clement and Papias who wrote on the 2nd century - rather than textual criticism.

- Mark used Matthew and the preaching of the disciple, Peter, to write his Gospel.

- No need for a hypothetical Q document.

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Griesbach Hypothesis

- Matthew and Luke do agree on some details against Mark. Matthew 9:17 and Luke "Wine Spilt" Mark 2:22 "Winesinks perish" Strange to differ if they depend on Mark.

- If Matthew and Luke were using Mark, why do they omit sections - Luke misses out Mark.

- Before the 18th century, there was a general agreement that Matthew came first.

- Mark used Matthew and Luke to write his Gospel.

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Harder Readings

- Mark's Gospel contains harder readings, meaning that his Gospel is the hardest to understand, again indicating that it was Mark that wrote it first.

- For example, In Mark 8:22-26 he tells the story of a blind man of Bethsada which is an unusual story as it involves Jesus healing the man with saliva which neither Matthew or Luke contain in the Gospel. Could suggest that Matthew or Luke could not understand the difficult readings.

- Mark 6:5 "And he could do no mighty work there, except that he laid his hands upon a few sick people and healed them". Whereas, in Matthew 13:58 "And he did not do many mighty works there because of their unbeliefs". Mark seems to be limiting Jesus; powere which seems unusual and difficult to undertand as to why he would limit Jesus' power. This is contrasted in Matthews Gospel where he shows that Jesus could do "mighty deeds" but did not want too.

- This therefore supports the view of Markan priority rather than Matthean priority because if Mark wrote last why would he proceed to undermine Jesus power.

- Mark = Humanity                                                Matthew and Luke = Divine Side

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Keith .F. Nickle

Why write a Gospel?

1) Passing of eyewitness authorities.

2) Preservation of Jesus' return.

3) Aids for worship.

4) Protect Jesus traditions from corruption.

5) Addresses needs for a specific community.

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