surgery solutions

the soutions to the problems of pain, infection and surgical shock with their problems and oppositions

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Pain: anasthetics


  • invented by James Simpson
  • wanted something to relive the pain of childbirth
  • replaced ether
  • easier to use
  • less was needed
  • worked quicker
  • problems

               -cause liver damage

               -if too much was given it could kill

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pain- anasthetics


  • good at preventing pain
  • problems

           -hard to breathe in

           -lots is needed   

           -highly explosive



  • quicker recovery and less painful
  • problems- hard to use 
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pain: anasthetics


  • pain was god given and shouldn't be intefered with
  • gave sugeons false confidence- they performed operations that were to complecated at the time
  • chloroform killed people
  • people afraid of long term effects
  • pain part of healing
  • surgeons still wanted perform quick operations
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Infection: antiseptics

carbolic acid/spray

  • killed bacteria
  • discovered by Joesph Lister- infections caused by germs (germ theory 1861)
  • spray covered wounds, surgeons hands and the air
  • also soaked bandages in carbolic acid
  • mortality rates fell


  • unpleasent for surgeons to use (covered hands in blisters)
  • when Lister's method was copied it didn't work well
  • stopped body from healing itself
  • surgeons didn't acdept Pasteurs germ theory
  • Listers patients survived which made other surgeons jealous
  • wasn't as entertaining to watch
  • kept changing  methods, people thought this was as  methods didn't work
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  • preventing infection
  • gloves to stop bacteria transferring from surgeon to patient
  • clean clothing
  • wore hats
  • sterilised instriments

           -Koch showed boiling killed germs

  • surgeons washed hands in carbolic acid
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Surgical Shock: blood transfusions

  • done by transferring blood along a tube from donor to patient
  • problems

            -sometimes worked, but only if donor and patient had matching blood groups

           - blood hard to store as it kept clotting

  • Karl landsteiner discovered different blood groups

            - allowed donor and patient to match up blood groups allowing a high success rate

  • sodium citrate- stopped blood from clotting so it could be stored for longer
  • British national blood transfusion service established in 1938
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Surgical Shock: blood transfusions


  • science and technology- helped blood to be stored longer without clotting
  • war- provided need for blood transfusion
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It was very useful and helps a lot. thx :)

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