- surgery was done only under natural anasthetics such as alcohol and opium.
- patients would get drunk before a operation or get a boxer to knock them out
- operations were terrifying for the patient
- patients died during the operation from pain or from post operative shock
- operations had to be quick to reduce the how long the pain was felt by the patient
- patients had to be strapped in so they didn't move so much because of the pain.
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- operations carried out under unhygenic conditions
- wounds would easily get infected.
- patients died from infected wounds
- doctors wore everyday clothes that were sometimes covered in the blood of a previous patient.
- sugical instriments wern't sterilised.
- this happened before pasteurs germ theory in 1861, so no one knew the importance of clean conditions for operations.
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- blood loss
- there was no way of stopping blood loss during operations
- many patients died from blood loss during operations
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