Surburbanisation

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Surburbanisation

...the movement of people, services and industry from the centre of urban aresa to the periphery of the built up area

Characteristics:

  • Housing - detached/semi detached with garages and large gardens on cul de sack roads
  • Transport:- private car ownership with less public transport. Often ribbon development
  • Industry - retail estates/small industry, distribution centres, access to road network, sports and leisure facilities
  • Land Use/Environment - residential with open space and green parks

Transport and Technological Developments:

  • Private car ownership
  • Expansion/improvement of the road network
  • Better public transport links from suburbs to the city centre (london underground)
  • Communication technology - email, mobile phones, video conferencing, delivery services. All reduced the need of industry and population being located in close proximity
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Push and Pull factors for People

Push

  • Crime/vandalism
  • poor health/education
  • unemployment - manufacturing went abroad

Pull

  • greener
  • cleaner
  • safer
  • better housing
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Push and Pull factors for Industry

Push

  • Office boom meant higher land prices
  • migration of the skilled workforce to the suburbs

Pull

  • profit from selling land 
  • cheaper land avaliable
  • space for expansion
  • easy access to transport
  • More flexible, educated, non unionised, cheaper female workforce avaliable
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Effect on the Inner City

Positive

  • Less need for high-rise high density, housing in the inner city
  • Industrial sites and derelict land can be cleared/improved to create recreational spaces and better communication networks
  • Unsightly canals/waterways can be renovated into attractive leisure areas and wildlife reserves
  • Poor quality victorian housing can be refurbished or cleared and replace by low density modern housing

Negative

  • Reduction in jobs leads to lower tax revenue -> decline in public services (education/health)
  • Buildings are left vacant, become rundown and are vandalised. Their appearance stops people investing in the area
  • Crime increases as income levels fall
  • income gaps between surburbs and inner city leads to polarisation and resentment
  • fewer jobs reduces shops and servoces as well as quality of life
  • less-skilled, aged, young and sick are left behind as people no longer live/work in the city centre
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Effect on the Suburbs

Positive

  • increased tax revenuw means better services and facilities
  • high disposable income of people living in the suburbs had led to the development of shopping centres
  • old railway lines can be replaced by footpaths/cycle tracks
  • increasing job opportunites in offices and shops in business and retail parks

Negative

  • Valuable agricultural ladn lost to housing, road and retail/industry
  • land prices increase on the city edge as demand increases
  • income gap leads to polarisation and resentment
  • village community atmosphere is lost and locals become a minority
  • congestion on ring roads as the volume of commuter traffic incerases
  • green belt comes under pressure
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