Superpowers and Trade Definitions
Trade Blocs: EU, NAFTA make trade between rich countries easier, but make trade with developing countries more difficult.
Patents and Royalties: Protects inventions from beign coppied, mosly held by rich companies,e.g Apple with the Iphone.
Terms of Trade: Countries now import cheap raw materials from developing countries, but sell expensive hi-tec products. Most profits end up in the developing world.
Colonialism: Direct control of a foreign land, usually by Military Conquest. This includes no voting rights, Use of foreign language, religion and uniform and exports of cheap raw materials.
Neo-Colonialism: Indirect control of foreign countries, through mechanisms such as Trade Aid, Alliances, Patents, Global TV and Media and Ignoring Human Rights.
Consumerism: Success can be measured by Ownership.
Democracy: People should be free to choose who leads them.
Individual Rights: Every individual has the right to earn a living and make their owm money.
State Support: Governement should provide key services to everyone.
Seclarism: Goverment and Rleigion should not mix.
USA Hyperpower - All Round Power
- The Idea of spreading American Fast Food Consumerism around the world.
- The Dollar ($) currency is accepted worldwide.
- US Media and Film influence spread cultural ideas e.g, freedom, women.
- US Music is very influential globally.
- Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) with Nuclear War Heads can reach anywhere in the world - ultimate threat.
- Military Technology e.g Unmanned Drones can bomb anywhere in the world, with no risk to military personel.
- US TNCs are powerful globally e.g France and Technology.
- The USA has the most votes for the World Bank Board. America is usually its Chief Executive.
- US has 11 Nuclear Power Aircraft Carriers - can strike anywhere in the World.
- America account for 20% of the Global GDP - US$14.6 trillion.
- The USA have a big influence over decision making in the United Nations.
- USA is hugely ahead in terms of technology (2150 Nuclear Warheads and 11 Aircraft Carriers).
- Much of Russia's equiptment is a little bit old.
- China's military can't work overseas.
- The UK is a major player for their size (1 Aircraft Carrier like Russia and India).
The Cold War and the USSR
- Conflict between the USA and the USSR (Communist).
- The USSR and the USA wanted to expand their dominance over the globe.
- USSR - Eastern Europe and USA - Western Europe.
- In the 1980s their power increased.
- The USSR wanted to 'Russainise' the population by:
- Teaching Russian in Schools
- Banning Religion
- Promoting Russians to possitions of Power
- Countries in the USSR included:
- Amenia, Balarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kasakstan, Latvia and Ukraine.
- The Cold War ended between 1990 and 1991 - the population overthrew the government wanting more freedom.
Gramsci's Theory of Hegemony
Gransci was a Communist.
He argued that the powerful maintain their power through a Force of Hegemony.
Force of Hegemony = Dominance of one group over another.
Weaker economies are chosen by superpowers, without even knowing. The process is seen as Natural.
Education, Family, Politics, Religion and Media = The Superstructure makes them accept how the economy works
The Superstructure reinforces the Economic Base, which contains Capitalism and rich industries that exploit the poor.
China and India
China and India Compared
Recent Political History and Development Path
- Fought a brutal Civil War in 1949 with the Chinese Communist Party victorious.
- Was a Dictatorship until 1976 under Mao Zedong.
- Since the 1980s, China has opened up and traded with the World.
- The One Child Policy has been running since 1978.
Recent Political History and Development Path
- India gained independance from the UK in 1947.
- India split from Pakistan and suffered conflict between Muslims and Hindus.
- India remined undeveloped and poor into the 1980s.
- Red Tape and Inefficiency still exist today.
China and India (2)
Curent Level of Economic and Social Development
- GDP per Capita (PPP) = $8.500
- Agriculture = 10% of GDP
- 37% employed in Agriculture
- 13.4% below poverty line
- Population Growth = 0.4%
Curent Level of Economic and Social Development
- GDP per Capita = $3.700
- 17% of GDP from Agriculture
- 52% working in farming
- 30% below the poverty line
- Population Growth = 1%
China and India (3)
Current Social and Political Systems
- Communist Dictatorship - one Communist Party.
- No free elections.
- Leaders Transition every 10 years.
Current and Social Political Systems
- Worlds Largest Democracy.
- Leaders come from families - free votes.
- Hard to goven.
China and India (4)
- Since 1990, China has invested $ billions into infastructure (Rostows Take-Off Model).
- China reduced Dependancy by exporting manufactured goods not raw materials.
- China is catagorised in the Semi Periphery in Wallersteins Model.
- India had to develop on its own, without help from the USSR or the USA.
- This made them vulnerable to the Dependancy Theory.
- Their journey along Rostow's Take-Off Model has been slow.
India and China (5)
Top 5 India Problems
- Infastructure is old.
- Severe Electricity Shortages (2012 - 700 million affected - Largest Powercut).
- 60% live in poverty.
- Starting a business in India is hard, due to Red Tape.
- Bad conflicts with Pakistan.
Top 5 China Problems
- The population is aging - Gender Imbalance.
- People want more freedom, but the Communist Party don't agree.
- China's Resource Demand is huge!! - BIG Pollution Problems.
IGOs and their role in Decision Making
Superpowers and Emerging Powers: They are members of organistions like IMF, UN, WTO and make decisions about world affairs and food/trade tarrif fees.
International Munetary Fund: IMF and the World Bank provide SAPs (Structual Adjestment Programs) to rescue countries out of debt. This means providing free Trade Tarrifs, reducing spending on education,sanitiation and food supply, and producing cash crops to export.
World Trade Organisation: They control Trade Barriers and promote Free Global Trade, making it easier for LEDCs to compete. On some occasions, barriers are put up to stop LEDCs accessing global markets - to stop them from developing.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and North American Free Trade agreement are IGOs (Inter-Governmental Organisations) that promote free trade within their country.
United Nations: The UN promotes peace and co-operation. The 5 main countries included in the UN Security Council are the USA, UK, France, Russia and China.
SWOT on the EU
- 27 countries
- World's Biggest Economy
- Federation of National States
Agricultural Exports, Energy Independant, Most developed of the BRICs.
Political Insecurity and Poverty.
Olympics and World Cup = Global Stage, Potential to export Food and Technology.
SWOT on India
- 310 million people
- World's Largest single economy
ICT and Software Outsourcing and Education System
Poor Infastructure and Water and Energy Supply and Massive Poverty (60%) and inequality.
Huge Youth Population, Internal Markets and Low wages
Impacts of Bangalores Development
- 13,000 millionaires
- Becoming more Westernised.
- Conflict between Trade and Western
- Transport, Water and Env. problems ignored.
- Some locations are used for rubbish dumping.
- Gated communities have good water supplies.
- Water Pots feed a 1000, but these are off-site.
- Half of their water is wasted due to leaky pipes.
- Demand for Electricity and Infastructure is increasing.
The USA and Detroit
Detroit is the Core in the USA, however it is run down and has suffered from falling house prices.
- Their Car Factory closed in the 1980s, partly due to China's growth in Manufacturing.
- Individuals are moving towards the Suburbs becuase the area is more pleasant.
- 1 mliion people left Detroit between 1960 and 2010.
- 33% of people are below the Poverty Line.
- Only 1 in 4 children graduate from High School.
- 150,000 jobs lost since 2000.
The Rise of China
A Chinese person consumes 10% - 20% of resources, of an average American.
If China lives like an America we would need:
- 1350 million tonnes of grain per year.
- 180 million tonnes of meat a year.
- 2.8 billion tonnes of coal a year.
- 1.1 billion cars.
This will need a lot of resources, space and land for food. It might not be possible to support this demand.
A huge amount of Oil would also be needed, which would increase oil prices and put pressure on using Antarctica, producing conflicts over supplies.
Section B: Superpower Geographies
Head of the Sate for the 3 East Asian Countires in 2013:
- China: President Xi Jiping
- South Korea: President Park Guen-hye
- North Korea: Sumpreme Leader Kim-II-Sung
Disputes in East China:
Section B: Political and Economic Systems spectrum
Political Systems: How a country is govened
Dictatorship: No Elections (NORTH KOREA)
Hybrid: One Party. Free Elections (RUSSIA)
Democracy: Multiparty System. Free votes for everyone (EUROPE)
Economic Systems: How Production is owned and organised
Communist: State Ownership of Production. No private Ownership of Business or Property. Wealth is redistributed equally. All services are free.
Capitalist: Private Ownership of Businesses. Wealth Accumulation. Most services are paid for 'American Dream'.
Section B: WW2 Facts
- USA defeats Japan in 1945. Severe Military Implications enforced.
- China Becomes Communist, following the Civil War in 1949.
- USA adopts a policy of CONTAINMENT to prevent the spread of communism.
- American Foreign Aid used to support countries such asTaiwan, Malaysia, South Korea, Singapore etc.
- Chinese Invade North Korea in 1950, causing the Korean War between 1950 - 1953