- Created by: harry0909
- Created on: 26-05-19 08:38
The Yalta Conference
- Discussed how Germany was going to be split.
- $20 billion reparations
- United Nations is set up and the first meeting in 1945
- Stalin agreed to join the war against Japan
- Poland was to be ruled by USSR. With free elections. But they didn't discuss the meanings so their ideas of free elections were different
the Postdame Conference
- Roosevelt died, replace by Truman
- Churchill replaced by Attlee
- USA has tested their atomic bomb
- United nations had been created
- Truman was more tough, and wanted things his way
- Reparations were set, Germany's division was set
- But Europs's borders were not set, USSR wanted to take many of the countries, but Truman did not like that as they would become communist
The Tehran Conference
- What would happent to Germany
- Discussions should go through the United Nations
- Talked about USSR helping USA in the war against Japan
The Impact of the atomic bomb on US-Soviet relatio
- USA used this to show their power
- Truman wanted to use this to make Stalin more scared however it made Stalin more determined to make eastern Europe into his buffer zone
- Truman didn't tell Stalin about the atomic bombs, made him feel betrayed
- Made USA and USSR reluctant to go to war, instead began the arms race
The Soviet Union and its satellite states
- All the countries in Eastern Europe were ruled by the Soviet Union
- Except Czechoslovakia. However, Stalin needed it as a buffer zone. So he helped the communists to over throw the president
- Poland also turned communist
- Basically, Stalin would go to lengths to ensure that he had his buffer zones, and communist governments spread
The telegrams and the Iron curtain speech
The Long Telegram - 1946
- Kennan to Truman, USA
- Stated that USSR wanted to take over the world.
- There is no way that USSR and USA would be able to be at peace due to their difference in views
- USSR was rebuilding its army
The Novikov's telegram -1946
- Novikov to Stalin , USSR
- Stated that USA wanted to dominate the world
- USA does not want to co-operate with USSR
- USA was prepring people for war
The Iron Curtain speech -1946
- Showed how the superpowers see each other as enemies now
- Lead to spying, and the telegrams
The Truman Doctrine
- 1947 march
- It was an attempt to 'contain' communism
- Provided arms and money to Greece and Turkey
- Fear of the Domino Theory
- Truman's way of trying to protect these countries from communism
the Marshall Plan
- Created to stop countries from becoming communist
- All countries could take part as long as they trade freely with USA. Therefore, communist countries can't do it
- Stalin thought that USA was doing this to take over the world, so he forbid communist countries from attending.
COMINFORM and COMECON
COMINFORM - 1947
- This was just an alliance of communist parties around the world
- This helped Stalin control other communist countries more easily
- Strengthened Stalin's hold on Eastern Europe
COMECON - 1949
- And economic aid package for communist countries
- Also created trade between the countries
- Not as effective because USSR was not as rich so they could not provide as much service as USA did
The Berlin Blockade and The Berlin Airlift
- Stalin did not want a divided Germany, he tried this to try to get the west to leaveas civilians would be starving
- It proved that USSR wanted to take over
- USA and Britain responded by the Airlift
- It was good propaganda for USA
- Stalin was worried and demanded for the speeding up of the atomic bomb testing.
- Lead to the creation of NATO.
- Also lead to the divsion of east and west Germany
- North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
- If one country was attacked other members would assist
- USSR felt threatened so created The Warsaw Pact
- Soviet Union tested their first atomic bomb in 1949, but due to the MAD theory it prevented war, only arms reace
The Korean War
- China became communist in 1949 so it proved the domino theory
- Sung, leader of North Korea wanted to reunite the country by force
- US sent troops to help stop Sung
- But China goes and helps North Korea, pushing US forces back
- War stopped in 1953, but Korea was still divided along 38th parallel
- This proved that US was determined to continue containment of communism
- Lead to the South East Asia Treaty Organisation. to try to stop communism from spreading in South East Asia
The Arms Race between USA and Soviet Union
- USA developed atomic bomb in 1945
- USSR developed atomic bomb in 1949
- Hydrogen bomb by USA in 1952
- Hydrogen bomb by USSR in 1953
- ICBM by USA in 1957
- ICBM by USSR in 1957
The Warsaw Pact
- Formed because West Gremany joined NATO, they feared that East Germany would be influenced by capitalism
- The Soviet Union controlled everything
- Contributed to the arms race, they had poor technology so USSR focused on developing nuclear weapns.
The Hungarian Uprising
- Nagy the leader of Hungary saw that Poland was allowed to maked reforms, so he also wanted to make changes
- He wanted to release political prisoners, allow more political parties, coalition governments, and also withdraw from the Warsaw Pact
- But if Hungary leaves the Warsaw Pact then other countries would too.
- So Krushchev sent troops to Hungary to crush the uprising
- Krushchev also wanted to be seen as a more powerful leader
- The leader of Hungary was changed to Kadar
- The Weat saw this and realised that Krushchev still wanted communism, and distrusted him
- Krushchev was seen as more powerful
- The failure showed how the West did not help the uprising, but USA was not prepared as they were busy with their own elections
The Berlin Crisis and the U2 incident
- The refugee problem, people moved to west berlin
- People could see that the capitalist side is doing better than East Berlin
- Worried about spying
- Krushchev sent an ultimatum demanding for Weatern Powers to leave Germany in 6 months
- This meant that Western powers were very angry
This lead to ...
- Geneva -1959- no conclusion
- Camp David - 1959 - Krushchev agreed to withdrow ultimatum
- U2 incident - 1960 - Kennedy refused t admit it in the Parsi Summit Conference
- Vienna -1961 - Krushchev asked Kennedy to withdraw troops again but he refused
So the Berlin Wall - 1961
The Berlin Wall
- Used as propaganda to show that Krushchev has to cage people in make them like communism.
- People couldn't escape
- Kind of improved relations, there was no more protests, less communication.
The Cuban missile crisis
- Castro leads Cuba, took the foreign land owned by US owners, and Kennedy was angry so stop trades with Cuba.
- In 1961, Cuba was declared communist and Khrushchev supported and helped them.
- He began sending weapons such as missiles to Cuba. This also benefits USSR as USA has missiles in Italy and Turkey, USSR can fire the missiles quickly in a case of war
- Kennedy saw this and asked for a naval blockade. He also writes a letter telling Khrushchev to remove the missiles
- Khrushchev responds with 2 offers : USA will not attack Cuba and USA will remove missiles from Turkey
- Kennedy agreed but the deal was kept a secret
- Khrushchev was seen as weak , Mao was disappointed
- Kennedy was seen as powerful for removing the missiles
- European powers were angry at Kennedy because he did not consult him first. France pulled out of NATO, and NATO was weakened
- They were very close to war,so the hotline was created,and 1963 imited test ban treaty.detente
The Prague Spring
- Dubcek, leader of communist party of Czechoslovakia, wanted to make people like communism. so wanted to make reforms : free speech, trade, trade unions, elections with many parties.
- Brezhnev was worried that other countries will also make reforms so he decided to invade Czechoslovakia.
- He knew that USA would not help because they were busy with the Vietnam war and they wanted to build better relations with USSR.
- Leaders were taken and the reforms were stopped
- Lead to the Brezhnev Doctrine : if a capitalist country attacked a communist country then countries uder the Warsaw pact will retaliate
the treaties after the cuban missile crisis
- The Hotline- to avoid misunderstandings
- The Limited Test Ban Treaty - 1963 - due to concerns with the contamination of the environment.
- The Outer Space Treaty - 1967 - no one could claim planets in outer space. Only used for peaceful purposes
- The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty - 1968 - to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
Why was detente wanted
- Nixon the president wanted a less active role in international affairs, from the Vietnam War they saw that too many people died.
- Many socail problems, inequality, after Martin Luther King was killed, Nixon wanted to reduce spending on weapns and focus more on social problems
- He wanted to reduce tension with Soviet Union and China
- Also worried about China as they had atomic bombs and stuff
- They felt equal to USA's atomic bombs.
- Vietnam war showed USA could be beaten, less threatened.
- USSR was also facing economic problems
Role of China
China and the Soviet Union
- They had good relationships till Stalin died and Khrushchev took over
- Mao criticied Krushchev for the way he delt with the Cuban Missile Crisis, he also didn't like the invasion on Czhecoslovakia.
- Their tension became so bad that there was fighting along the boarders of Chinese-Soviet border.
- Mao then decided on a more friendly approach.
China and USA
- Relations were very poor especially since 1949 when China turned communist.
- In 1954 and 1958 China threatened Taiwan, and USA showed that they were ready to go to war for this.
- But by 1969 both USA and China were suspicious of the Soviet Union which meant that they were ready to improve relations
- This occured when USA and China played ping pong together.
- Kissinger went to China and talked to Mao. Good relations. And found a peaceful solution to Taiwan.
- Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
- 1972 and the second in 1979
- Leaders negotiated calmly
- Symbolic importance, both USA and the Soviet Union wantedto reach agreements and demonstrate good public relations.
- It did not prevent nuclear wars, countries were still allowed to have Nuclear weapons
- The leaders might not follow the treaty
- Did not cover the newest technology