Super powers East asian neighbours

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Political disputes over territories

Taiwan (origanly part of Duch empire)  has been both Chines and Japanse teritorys. Following WW2 it was defeated by Japan and taken back as their teritory despite it being ethinicly Chines. The republic of china then set up their goverment there following their defete by the poeples republic of china. Untill 1992 had the polital objective of takeing back Chinas mainland. The island is similar to Hongkong as it has its own governmenet. Despite the Peoples  Republic of Chinas army having a nonagresshon policy they say that they would use force aginast Taiwan. Taiwan is economilay sigificant as it is the wolds 19th largest economy and home to large TNCs such as Foxcom.

Senkaku Islands: Conflict between china and Japan after they found large deposits of petroleum. Affter Taiwan was removed from Japan and controled by China, they clame that the Senkaku Islands were part of the agreement. Japan clame this was not part of the US backed deal. Lead to small pockets of conflict such as China tracking Japanes vessles and Chines fishermen being arrested. Activists form both partys started protesting with national flags being burnt in both contrys. Since the 1990s under UN regulations countrys have the right to decalr off sure ares up to 200 miles from sovereign terrorties as exclusive economic zones.

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Political disputes over territories

North Korea: Known as the "hermis Kingdom". In 2013 defied agreements made at the abandond six party talks and tested nuclear missiles. Korean war- 39 parallel signed and agreed by north korea. China is North Koreas only traiding partners, China have been able to use their place on the UN security council to stop military actions and economic santions in the region. Noth Korea have forced conscripton leading to a larg military fource. Untill 2008 South Korea tryed a "sinshine police" tring to apese the noth with aid and support pacages. 

South Korea: US military pressants with the Seventh fleet compromising of 70 ships, 300 aircraft and 40,000 personal which is baced in the philipeans is a source of conflict. 

China has repeatedly blocked Japans application to be part of the UN security council. Chines pressants in Korea has been a talking point as the Peoples Liberation Army is the wolds 4th largest emplyor, has had a preasnats and hase been reducing in size in favor of larger technological equpped navie.This is as a reuslt of the colaps of the soviet union and a shift of china military eastwards. This has been described as "peasfull growth" with its 2005 white paper claiming China would neither seek hegemony or interfere in external dispured and would seek development through globalisation. The developed a Blue water navy and their first air craft carrier. Criticies for selling whepons to Sudan and Zimbabwe as part of their "neo colonial" rule. Military spending had increaced 17%.

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Political disputes over territories

Japan: Folowing world war 2 they have folowed a pacifist policy when it comes to foreign relations as showing in artical 9 of the peace cause. Showing in figure 5 japan has a relitivly week army showing it wants a peace keeping force only. There have been calles to changed this over the tentions in Noth and South Korea. This has also been backed up by the armys role in the 2012 tsunami has renued national pride and intrest in the military.

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Changing and Varying Economies

Japan: Folowing WW2 Japan had an economy similar to Africas. It has since then seen an economic mirical and became the origanal NIC. It all started with the US and world bank/IMF aid. The Marshal plan ensured that Modernist theory pre conditions for takek offwere in place including the deregulations in the state, public spending and libralisaton of traid. The Korean war was a masive boom to economy as it was used by USA for procurement. This lead to a rapid transfer of tecnology and copyrights from america to japanes industry. Then whent through three stages of growth focusing on heavy industry such as ship building, then concumer goods then to high tec products. It invested heavly in education. Does not have many comiditys and raw matirals. Heavy investment in Reaserch and development. The protectionism of American marcits alowd companys to suculty move to more exspencve products like cars and electronics. During the 1970s Japans economic growth rate was 11%. How ever by the late 1980s there was a dependency on exsports. In the 1990s a period of stagnations and reseshons flowed by the 2008 economic down turn. Second only to China Japan owns US reserved curancy debt making it a significant economic super power. 

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Changing and Varying Economies

South Korea: One of the 4 orgianl Asian Tigers. had a tiny domestic market and few resorses it relied on US aid and investment to develop an exsport baced economy. The governemt could protect its market by from cheep imports by keeping priced low. It concentrated its suport and investment first on state owned steel and ship building and family ownd businesses eg samsung. Did need IMF lones in 1997 affter economic buble burst. Did not fall in to reseshon during 2008 golbal reseshon. Samsung now have 16 over seas production plants and offices in over 56 countrys. It reprecesnt 20% of South Korean fourigne exspots. It also supplyed US and UN forced during the Korean war.

China: Folowing a similar development pathway to S.Korea with GDP growing at 8-10% up to 2009. They have an open door policy transformed the economy which has been fuled by foreign direct investment paticulaly in Chines exsporting Zones. Invenstment in Educations and Concumer goods alowd TNCs to grow out of the country. It has some of the worlds highest ranking TNCs, that although are not house hold names are the worlds largest players but do not have cultural influence. China is the worlds biggest concumer of fosil fules and metals giving it hige influnece. they also own the largest amount of US socereign Debt. The huge domestic market could mean less dependency on exsports in the future, but still has huge disparitys in welth and low consumer spending levels. It alo faces water stress, high level of corruption and aging populatio.

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Changing and Varying Economies

North Korea: Very diffrent form the succesess of the other countrys in the region. Although is is not official communist it folows a "Juche" economic systemwhich involves heavy leavles of traid protectionism/self sufficience and state control. This has lead to low GNP and other development indicators. Low technology transfer, subsistece agriculture uncompetitive outdated industrys. All the sccurace of all N.Korean data is doubtful.

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All 4 Countrys have low globalisation index in comparison to belgium. The reason for this may be Geographical isolation from the multiple nations found in europ and sothern Aisia. The index takes in to account: Cultural traphic, amount of import/ exsports, meberships of IGO's and exstent of embassies as well as leavle of FDI inwardly and outwardly. Japan and South Korea have this highest leavle of globalisation as it has such close links with USA with traid agreements. Also unlike china they have both signed the UN human rights convention suggesting they have shared values with more western societys. Japan is looking to sing the Trans Pacific Free Trade deal.

The BRICS Forum may become an increacingly important IGO which will help place China on the globle stage. They met in 2013 to descus setting up an IMF/ world bank style fund. This would make them very powerfull, espeshaly China as they would have the largest stake. The BRICS are already putting pressure on IMF to restrucher its voting system to give China a larger Vote as between all the bricks they only have a 9.7% stake compared to EU=25% and USA=16%.

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Growth Report

Critisum off all economys have been that the development of research and Development and technological innovation. The growth report 2008 identified key factors for growth including engagement with the globle economy, specialising exports and their transfer of key technologys. South Korea had the second highest university inrolments in the world plus 10 of its unis are in the top 100 which is very hight for a population of 40 million. Japan has high University standing showin in figure 9 which is also linked to the niber of paintant aplicatiosn. China may also over take the USA for the most number of degrees given. 

The USA still dominate pantent market= EG Apple sueing Samsung for coppieing their desinge.

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Water and food security in China and Japan

Japan: only 39% of food growin in Japan, contributing to its high eco foot print (figure 15). It rancks 124th in foor security. They have healthy diet of rice and fish meaning they have long live exspectancey. This aging population will be less likcly to grow food or afford imports making food crisis worce. As Japan is a mountinace country any farming has to be very intence. The government is trying to promote home grown rice and fish to reduce their foot print. How ever Japanes fishing industrys such as Tuner are juged as unsustanable. 25% of the worlds tuner is consumed in Japan.

China: Food and Water security are the biggest problems facing China. Hyper Urbanisation, limited Bio capacity and rising food import prices linked to rising energy prices and the rising consumption of the middle class are all having an effect. China faces the problem of feeding 20% of the worlds population with only 10% of the arable land. By 2030 the population growth will have stabalised at 1.5 billion the dependency ratio will have increaced 50% and the Rural population will have halved. There is 0.08 hactares of cultivble land per person which technicly makes them insecure. A grain of Green policy where millions of trees have been planted = loss of production space. Chinas demand for meat is rising but still half of the US, a thurd of chinas crop is going to feed animals. Climate change also causing problems through lack of rain. There is a lac of invesment in farms and less than half are mecanised.

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Water and food security in China and Japan

China: Many view Chinas neo-colonialisum FDI in Africa as a solution to the food shortanges. Only 1% of FDI is in agricultual investment the rest is in raw minerals for industry or energy. The Economist reported that there are up to 1 million Chines farm laborers working in Africa. China-Africa Cotten development in Malawi has succued cheep cotten for China.

Water Scarsity: Huge imbalance in distribution between the South and East of the country and the Noth and the West. Over all the approx 2000cm3 of water per person is well below world average of 6000cm3 a day. Water stress is below 1700cm3 per year and water scarcity is 1000cm3. Dry aquifers and varied rainfall is worced by endemic water polution. Up to 40% of rivers are suverly polluted with 20% to toxic for human use. Yello river now to toxic for even irrigation. protests over issue have forced political intervention and pland huge scale liek Three goreges dam and north south transfer project, this is attempting to pump 50 billion cubic metres of water from the yangtze northwards in a net work of canels. Chinas main energy source remains coal which requires huge amounts of water in mining and power generation. Water is very cheep in rural areas thanks to government subsdidys meaning there is little insentive to conceve water.

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The Demographic Challenges

Japan: Already has the the worlds largest % of over 100s. Clearly already on stage 5 of demographic transition modle as population is prodicted to fall by 20% by 2050. 25% of the population are over 65 compared to 13% under 14. This problem is a result of falling burth rate due to social changes, high life exspectincy and house prices and the post war baby boom reaching retiamnet age and stricked imigation rules.

China: The amount of over 60s is expected to double by 2030 to 365 million. This will mean a 2:1 dependency ratio by 2050. There is a lack of pension systems meaning the burdan to take care of the eldily will fall to a single grand child as a result of the "famin solving" one child policy. This will also mean they will not have the work force to be able to keep up with its currant producion. There will be a huge brain drain form the country side and a inbalance in male to famal. The UN conciders a country a agin population when 7% of the pop is over 65. China will be the first country to ever reach this stage wile still being a middle income country. There is now call for the one child policy to be droped. 

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Ecological footprints

In 2008 the average biocapacity was estimated at 1.8 global hactars with the average foot print at 2.7. Chinas foot print is the worlds largest due to poulation size, yet individual footprints are 80% wold average. How ever its carbon footprint 2.5 times its capacity. This foot print has doubled in the last 30 years. Its share of the worlds foot print has reached 25% the priportion of this responsiple by carbon has increaced from 10 to 50%. Regions such as Baijing and Shanghai have doubled in ecological foot print. It has attempted to "import" biocapacity by neo-colonial rule in Africa.70% of chinas energy is COAL. There was a $65 billion investment 2012 in green energy mainly hydro and solar energy. Percapiter it is not the worlds largest carbon imiter.

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China/ Japan energy security

1993 China moved from a net oil exporter in an importer. Remaing resurves such as the Tarim basin are remote and not economicly viable. Its increacing oil imports now means it is the worlds lagest concumer of oil, this is partly responsiple for the globle price rise. Its involvment in civel wars have been in order to succure oil suplyes. China plans to buld piplies east to the Caucasus. Fraking may also provide improved seccurity but will impact on water succurity. 

Japan: Limited domestic energy supply and is increacingly depended on foreigne oil and gas imports form the middle east. This is following the closing of its nuclear plants because of the Tsunami. It has small hydro elctric plants and geothermal energy thanks to its placement on plat boundrys. 

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Hartati Medina


Please edit this and fix the grammar. It is really hard to understand.

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