Summer History Test

  • Created by: Conorcog
  • Created on: 09-05-18 18:15

World War One I

Long Term Causes: The long term causes of World War One are summarised in MAIN.

Militarism: This is the belief that a strong military should be maintained and used for national interests. Germany was competing against Russia and France to grow their army and with the UK to build battleships. Germany caused their allies to become paranoid and build their armies as well.

Alliances: France, Britain and Russia were in the Triple Entente and Germany, Astria-Hungary and Italy also formed the Triple Alliance. War between the allies was now more likely to occur in Europe

Imperialism: All the great powers were competing for colonies/territory. They were paranoid at their rivals attempting to take over their territory. 

Nationalism: All nations wanted to assert their power or independence. Nationalism means thinking your country is superior to others. This caused rivalry between nations. The Europe Slavs wanted free of Austrian rule, and were aided by Russia.

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World War One II

Why the Schlieffen Plan Failed: Germany were counting on Britain not entering the war. When Belgium was invaded Britain came to their defence, an agreement almost 100 years old. Belguim held the Germans back for 10 days, giving France time to prepare their defences. Germany counted on Russia mobilising in 6 weeks, after France was taken. Russia mobilised in 10 days. The plan was outdated, and French troops could use trains to travel faster and counter Germans.

Dangers in the Trenches

Waterlogged Trenches: Not only did men have to stand in waterlogged trenches in wet boots, but they suffered from an infection dubbed trenchfoot caused by the wet and filthy conditions.

Disciplining: A number of offenses were punishable by the British Army, such as sleeping on post, cowardice and assisting the enemy. They were punished by Field Punishment Number One (tying the offnder to a fixed object for up to two hours a day) or execution in more serious cases.


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World War One III

Problems in the Trenches II

Food in Trenches: Men were only given a hot meal once a day. Each soldier had their own rations but there was no variety. The bulk of their diets were usually bully beef, bread and biscuits.

Gas Attacks: Poison Gas was used in trenches with no warning. Gas attacked the skin, eyes and groin. It burned into the victim leaving searing blisters and extreme pain. Death was drawn out.

Good Things in the Trenches: Men had rest breaks in support trenches. They went home on leave once or twice a year. They would recieve care packages. Troops had a sense of closeness.

Shellshock: The noise of the shells exploding and other parts of the environmnet gave men shell shock. Symptoms included tiredness, lack of concentration and headaches. Eventually the men had mental breakdowns. Tens of thousands of men were affected.

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Rise of Hitler

Treaty of Versailles: The Treaty was signed on the 28th of June 1919, after an armistice was signed in November 1918. This forced the Germans to accept the War Guilt clause of Clause 231. Germans had to accept all responsibility for a war they did not start. Germans had to pay 6.6 billion in gold and goods as war reparations. Germans also lost 10% of their land. The Treaty was bitterly resented by all the German people, and the government was also hated as they signed it.

Why Germans Supported Hitler:

Almost all of the German people despised the Treaty of Versailles and the government who had signed it were also under fire. This made the people look for more extremist parties, and Hitler took advantage of this by remind the people of the Treaty in many of his speeches.

The 25 Point Programme written in 1920 was the first thing that set Nazis apart. Points such as the need for strong government and destroying the Treaty of Versailles got attention. 

Extreme hyperinflation in 1923 showed how weak the government was and riled up the people who had lost their savings. The low and middle class people now looked to extremist parties once again, and Hitler's promises seemed much more relevant to the people because of this crisis. 

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Rise of Hitler II

Hitler failed at taking power by force through the Munich Putch. This failed coup was still very profitable as the court case recieved national attention and Hitler got a chance to spread his views across the entire nation. Even when he was imprisoned he had time to plan changes for the Nazis.

The changes were extremely effective to bring Hitler to power. He replaced the violent SA with the fiercely disciplined and loyal **, to give the party a more respectable image. The Hitler Youth brought young Germans new experiences and influenced their working class parents to support the Nazis. Hitler brought businessmen to his side by talking about how weak the economy was, and how that would change when the Nazis were in power.

The Great Depression of 1929 brought the unemployed up from 1 million to 6 million. Suddenly the need for change was important for those 6 million and their families, and Hitler's support rocketed as a result. 

Communism was Hitler's main threat during the 1920s and 1930s. They also profited from recessions, but Hitler used them to his advantage to gain influence over companies that didn't like the idea of all their money being taken away, and so they supported Hitler's campaign. The other parties also prefered Hitler to Communists, which helped him finally become Chancellor in 1933.

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Assassination of JFK I

Lee Harvey Oswald: He is the official, sole assassin of JFK. Believing he acted alone is the Lone Gunman Theory. This is the conclusion made by the Warren Commission.

Reasons why he could have killed JFK are: He was emotionally disturbed, he attempted to gain Russian citizenship, he bought the Mannlicher Carcano that was found in the Depository under an alias.

However, eyewitnesses said that he didn't kill Tippit, that photos of him holding the rifle and a Communist newspapers may be fakes, he always said he was innocent and photos show him on the ground floor at the time of shooting.

Magic Bullet: This theory is about the the second bullet. The bullet entered JFK's upper right back, exited through his tie knot, entered near Conally's right armpit and exited through his fifth rib. Then it entered and exited his right wrist. Finally it entered the left thigh, where it was found on his stretcher. The theory says that the bullet could not have done all of this, unless it moved when in midair. This is why it is sarcastically called the Magic Bullet. The bullet found on Conally's stretcher was barely damaged, so it could have been planted. Conspiracy theorists often suggest these multiple wounds had to be caused by multiple bullets, making Oswald only on of the gunmen.

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Assassination of JFK II

The CIA: Many people also think the CIA killed their own president. They argue that the CIA have all the resources necessary and also have motives to kill JFK. Also, the CIA admitted to having Oswald under surveillance, so they could have been in discussions with him or decided not to intervene. 

The first motive the CIA had to kill Kennedy was over Cuba. Kennedy approved disastrous changes to the Bay of Pigs attack on Castro, which led to a humiliating defeat that made the CIA look like fools. After he caused the air attack to be mistimed, Kennedy refused to authorise a second airstrike that could have helped them retake Cuba. Thus, the CIA held Kennedy responsible for having a Communist country at their backdoor, 103 miles from Florida.

The second motive the CIA had was Kennedy's response to the invasion of Vietnam. If Vietnam became Communist the CIA feared of a domino effect that would make many more nations Communist. The CIA wanted Kennedy to send more troops to stop the spread of Communism. Kennedy refused. As a result North Vietnam became Communist and today all of Vietnam is Communist. The CIA would once again hold Kennedy responsible for the failure at Vietnam.

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World War Two I

Hitler's Foreign Policy Objectives: Hitler's aims were to Destroy the Treaty of Versailles, restore Germany's military strength, unite all German speaking people under his control in the Third Reich and to expand in the East to gain lebensraum for the German people.

Operation Barborossa: This was the German offence on Russia. Hitler took over the military and decided to continue the extremely successful Blitzkrieg to take Russia. This proved very successful, until the Winter of 1941 turned the tide on the attack. With the Germans on the outskirts of Moscow, the capital of Russia, progress was stopped. Hitler decided that it was more important to take Stalingrad, and the army marched south towards the city. Many problems arose. The weather was horrible, and Hitler had failed to provide his men with the necessary equipment to deal with the freezing temperatures. The successful Panzers got stuck in the harsh conditions, and progress was extremely slowed. Incredible discipline by the USSR and Order 227 forced Germany to work hard for every bit of Russian soil. The halt gave Russia time to produce new equipment like the T34 Tank and equipment to listen in on German radios efficiently. These were so successful two thirds of messages were disrupted successfully. Stalin rallied his troops to push Germany back, reminding them of the thousands of innocent civilians Hitler had enslaved and killed. Russia successfully pushed Germany back and were the first to reach Berlin. 

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The Holocaust I

Ghettos were specially selected areas where the Jews were forced to live in terrible conditions. Some ghettos had walls built around them to keep the Jews away from Aryans, whilst others had barbed wire. The Ghetto areas were nearly always in the poorest areas of town, and were desperately cramped with poor sanitation.

Inside the Ghettos, Germans ordered Jews to wear identity armbands and provide forced labour for the German Reich. The Judenraete, or Jewish Council, were Jews selected by the Germans to run daily life as Germans did not want to deal with them. The Jews also had to make their own police force. There was very little food in the Ghettos, so smuggling and a black market economy was very common.

Eventually Ghettos became too full, and the Germans started the "Final Solution," clearing Jew elderly and children into death camps and leaving only the Jews who were fit bodied and able to provide labour.

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The Holocaust II

** Einsatzgruppen: The Einsatzgruppen were a part of the ** that's primary objective was to kill the people that Nazi Germany wanted rid of. These included Jews, Roma (Gypsies) and officials of the soviet state and communist party. The killing squads used local Nazi sympathisers to reveal the locations of their enemies and help round them up and kill them. It is estimated that the killing squads killed 2 million people, but as most were disposed of in mass graves or cremated there is no exact figure. This figure is very large considering the Einsatzgruppen was made up of only a few thousand ** and were put into action only in the war.

Wannsee Conference: The Einsatzgruppen complained of the slow speed and high monetary and psychological cost of the killing squads, so Reinhard Heydrich (the second in command of the Einsatzgruppen) called a top secret Nazi meeting in Wannsee, just outside Berlin, on the 20th of January,1942. In that conference, a list of the 11 million total Jews in Europe was drawn up. The Nazis then agreed on the Final Solution, rounding up Jews and sending them to be gassed in the extermination camps. This was crucial as the murdering of Jews was planned in great detail and the government had officially made genocide their policy.

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