Sudan

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  • Created by: Megan
  • Created on: 08-03-14 21:04

Sudan (North)

  • It is dominated by desert - a dry arid landscape so dust storms and persistent droughts occur
  • There is an inadequate water supply and soil erosion which causes desertification
  • This threatens wildlife populations - The only inhabitable land is the alluvial strip in the Nile Valley. Productivity depends on the annual flood.
  • A region of central clay plains stretches east from the Nuba mountains, providing productive areas of land around water - The Gezira Scheme: the largest irrigation project distributes water from the Blue Nile

Sudan is extremely poor (46.5% live below the poverty level) and has struggled to maintain economy stability because oil earnings provide a small revenue (GDP growth = -11.2%) 

Capital: Khartoum  Population: 25million - mainly islam GDP per capita: $2400

The country is now trying new sources of revenue like Gold mining

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South Sudan

  • covered by green swathes of grassland, swanos and tropical forests
  • The white Nile provides water for irrigation and wildlife
  • A cast swamp comprising of 15% of total land area
  • It also has large wetlands which are an important resource for wild animals and livestock

It is a highly oil dependent country and was once based on subsistence argiculture (GDP Growth -55% and population beneath hte poverty line is 46.5%)

Capital: Juba Population: 8million - mainly Christian GDP per capita: $900

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Causes of Conflict

  • Disputes over local resources and grazing rights
  • The historic conflict between nomadic herders and agricultural farmers
  • The threat over security
  • Disputes over the region of Abyei
  • Control over oil fields, borders and the issue of citzenship

SLA - Sudan Liberation Army
JEM - Justice and Equality Movement
Janjaweed - Pro-government, nomadic, arab militants
DLF - Darfur Liberation Front
LJM - Liberation Justice Movement
Guerilla Warfare -> use of surprise to dominate a larger, less-mobile army and withdraw immediately

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Key Events

Feb 2003 - SLA & JEM accuse government of oppression Black African farmers, causing Guerilla warfare

March 2003:- Army deployed to the south, ending the second civil war and to the east, where Eritrea sponsered terrorists threatened a new pipeline from the oilfield to the ports of Sudan

April 2003 - A raid by DLF & JEM killed 75 Sudanese soldiers. Armed forces used intelligence and air force as well as placing the Janjaweed on the ground

Next 12 Months - Janjaweed turn the tide and thousands of non arabs were killed. The government was accused of providing finanical assistance and weapons to the Janjaweed, organising joint attacks targeting civilians. They deny these links and accusations of murder or attempts to cleanse areas of territory of black african farmers

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Conflict Resolution

The African Union, Arab league, Chad and UN have arranged peace talks - 2004 and 2006, at which point UN and AU peacekeeping forces began work in the region

The sudanese government rejected peacekeepers until 2007, at which point UN and AU peacekeeping forces began work in the region

Feb 2010: Sudanese government and JEM sign a ceasefire agreement. However, further peacetalks were disrupted as the JEM accused the army of launching raids and air strikes against a village, violating the prior agreement. The JEM is boycotting further negotiations

July 2013: The government and LJM sign a peace deal. Some refuees have left camps and are beginning to return to villages in Darfur. However, the JEM and SLA did not sign the deal and outbreaks of fighting have continued

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Social Impacts

  • Killed 300,000 people 
  • 2.7million refugees - 200,000 fled to Chad
  • Refugee camps with limited clean water and health facilities - overcrowding and local resources can not meet demand
  • Janjawwed patrolled the camps - they killed men and women were held as sex slaves
  • Genocide accusations - in 2008, the International Criminal Court issued a warrant for President Bashir for humanitarian crimes. Bashir denies the charges and the ICC has no power to arrest him until he leaves Sudan
  • Drought, the murder of farmers adn the destruction of farming communties has led to a decrease in food production and caused widespread malnutrition
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Environmental and Economic Impacts

Environmental

  • Increased pressure on local resources, stripping the land of vegetation to use as a fuel. This had led to desertification
  • Refugee camps are polluting resources (generally poor waste disposal infrastrucutre)
  • Wildlife has distrubed, injured and killed
  • Uncontrolled deforestation is taking place due to illegal/legal logging. THe UN estimates 52,000 trees are being felled each year for the production of bricks

Economic

  • The conflict has cost billions which is especially damaging as Sudan is so poor - The war has prevented economic growth in the region as productive farmland was abandoned so natural resources were not developed
  • Trade of livestock in Darfur is important to the economy and millions of dollars worth fo livestock has been lost in the conflict
  • It has contributed to widespread poverty and slowed infrastructure development. Rebuilding will have a high economic cost - water, infrastrucutre, health care and agriculture all need investment
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South Sudan's Independence

First Civil War - Southners anticipated independence but feared they would be dominated by the North. The north has ties with Egypt and the Arab/Muslim world while the South was non-Arabised/Christian

Second Civil War - President Nimeiry tried to create a united Sudan but this violated the agreement of the first war so war was reignited

2002: - SLA and government agree on a 6 month ceasefire, allowing vital humanitarian aid to enter the South of Sudan after years of violence

2003/4: - Peace talks between Southern rebels and the government make progress

2005:- Peace deal grants South Sudan autonomy for 6years to be followed by an independence referendum

2006:- Fragile peace - hundreds die and Khartoum is accused of failing the peace deal

2011:- 98.9% were in favour of independence so in July they became the independent South Sudan

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Conflicts since Independence

2012:- South Sudan-Sudan Border War -> An armed conflict between the countrie over the oil rich region. This region is under the control of Sudan but the area is claimed by both sides

Feb:- They can not agree on how much the south should pay in transit fees. The dispute led to the South cutting off all oil exports, triggering a collapse in government revenue and tough austerity measures

The issue of Abyei: the region must hold its own referendum and decide whether to go with the South or remain with Sudan. The vote still hasn;t taken place because of the dispute over who has the righ to vote in the region

The issue of oil: Both countries are reliant on oil revenue, which accounts for 98% of South Sudan's budget. They cannot agree how to divide their oil wealth. When South Sudan seceded, it took 75% of the country's oil and it is feared that dispute over oil could lead the two neighbours to war

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