19 Succession

  • Created by: lee8444
  • Created on: 03-02-20 12:38

Stages of Succession

  • At each new stage new species colonise the area and change the environment
    • Could be more suitable for other species with different adaptations and so the current species is out-competed by the new species
    • Could be less suitable for the existing species causing them to be out-competed
  • Successional changes in the abiotic environment
  • These changes generally make the environment less hostile than before
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Pioneer Species

  • Stage 1 = Pioneer species
    • Asexual reproduction for rapid multiplying
    • Production of widely dispersed seeds or spores to reach isolated situations
    • Rapid germination so they don't require a period of dormancy
    • Ability to photosynthesise as light is available but food isn't
    • Ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere
    • Tolerance to specific extreme conditions
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Succession progression

  • After the pioneer species, such as lichens there is new species such as mosses which can live off the decomposed lichens
  • Then ferns follow the mosses as the abiotic factors are more favourable for new species
  • More water and nutrients can now be stored in the environment
  • Then small, flowering species
  • Then grasses
  • Then shrubs
  • Then trees
  • At each stage, biodiversity and biomass increases
  • Generally the climax community is a deciduous oak woodland with animals aswell
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Common features of succession

  • Abiotic fcators become less hostile
  • This causes a greater variety and number of habitats and niches
  • This causes increased biodiversity
  • This causes more complex foodwebs
  • This causes increased biomass, especially during mid-succession
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Secondary Succession

  • Land is altered in some way
  • Could be a natural disaster, a change in climate or new predators
  • The species in the climax community will change
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