The main aim of the Crusaders was to capture Jerusalem.
Pilgrimage was also important to Christians.
Cluniac reforms had raised the piety at the time.
- Killij Arslan underestimated the strength of the crusader army.
- This underestimation came after Peter the Hermit's People's Crusade.
- Arslan didn't send many people to Nicaea and they got smashed.
- After the defeat of the Seljuks at Dorylaeum, Arslan was unable to challenge the crusaders again
- This gave them free passage over Anatolia.
- The Muslims were fighing their own Sunni/Shi'ite battles
- This made it hard for them to work together against the crusaders.
Muslim Weakness Cot'd
- The turks were trapped by two sections of the crusader army, led by Bohemond.
- The rest of the Turks fled instead of helping.
Fatimids and Seljuks
- The Fatimids were Shi'ite and the Seljuks were Sunni.
- The Fatimids took over Jerusalem from the Seljuks in 1098.
- Some Muslims were unhappy with the current rule, and helped Crusaders along the way.
"Muslims Disunity is key to crusader success" - Foss.
"The Shi'ite Fatimids had no intention of helping the Sunni Seljuks against the crusaders" - Mayer.
"The Muslims lacked unity in politics, race and religion" - Tyreman.
- They were vastly outnumbered at Antioch.
- They still managed to win.
- They trekked across some of the harshest conditions on earth.
- They still won battles after these hard conditions.
- The turks vastly outnumbered them again.
- They still managed to win.
- They defeated the mercenary army outside Jerusalem after travelling thousands of miles.
Crusader Strengths Cont'd
"Nicaea was a glorious Victory" - Anna Comnena
"Crusaders lacked a unifies leadership and an agreed military plan" - Tyreman.
"80% of the knights were without horses on the march to Antioch" - Riley-Smith.
- Piety was high at this point.
- They were kept motivated by the idea that they would get into heaven if successful.
- They found the Holy Lance at Antioch Cathedral
- This religiously kept moral high, as they felt they were backed by God.
"Religious enthusiasm was fundamental to the success of the first crusade" - France.
"The miracles en-route to Jerusalem spurred them on" - Mayer.
"The crusaders did not experience continual intensity of belief." - Bartlett.
- The crusaders capatured Nicaea, Dorylaeum and Antioch.
- This helped them build a supply chain to get them food and water.
- As they kept going, they had the states behind them so they could fall back and retreat onto them.
- This also meant the Muslims could not sneak up on them from behind.
Byzantine and Genoese Aid
- Alexius let the crusaders camp outside Nicaea.
- The Byzantines transported them free of charge across the Bosporus.
- The Byzantines sent soldiers to help them with the siege of Antioch.
- Genoese Aid brought raw materials for the crusaders to make siege engines.
- The crusaders found a whole stash of timber in a cave outside Jerusalem
- This meant they could build the siege engines they desperately needed.
- They found the Holy Lance at Antioch Cathedral.
- This helped keep them motivated as they were backed by God.