Success of Calvin because ... (24)

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Introduction

  • started the reformation in1536 with Farel as bishop was run out with his forces defeated and the city had agreed to reform
  • although Calvin was not as successful as Lutheranism it was still important in the wider picture of reform
  • calvinism was popular as it came from below
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Suppression of opposition

  • Calvins vitory in overcoming opposition was an important reason fro success
  • took 14 years of constant struggle for him to be unopposed (1555)
  • religious opponents were most serious problem as they attacked him where he hated to be challenged
    • Servetus affair- adopted extreme views and took it badly when other people did not accept them, condemned infant baptism and the doctrine of the trinity after writing a book and sending it to clavin where he was recognised he was arrested but escaped, he returned to one og calvins sermons pu on trial and burnt at the stake
    • Castellio was head of the Genevan colleg and claimed that some of the OT should not be part of the scriptures and for this calvin made ths syndics ecpel him
  • political opposition came from the strong families in the council such as the Perrin's
    • supported calvin but feared his political influence
    • opposed to the consistory and Calvin's opinions on public behaviour but probably wouldnt have minded if calvin was more tolerant
    • made a clumsy attempt of uprising but failed resulting in him fleeing and other supporters being executed
  • calvin was ruthless in destroying those who opposed him and this undoubtedly aided his reformation excommunications increased from 16 in 1553 to around 100 in 1560
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Calvin himself (preaching, teaching etc)

  • without his enormous personal authority and charisma the reformation in Geneva may not have been a success
  • looked to the bigger picture and set his sights to reform France many admired his ambition
  • instilled admoration no adoration "they have always feared me not loved me"
  • was a skilled speaker and preacher even though he was never ordained people came to see his sermons giving 260 in one year
  • spreading the word of reformation was essential in its success and calvin himself worked to spread the word
  • was the most organised reform which would help for obvious reasons
  • development of the printing press meant key works and the reform message could be spread furhter afield however the size of Geneva and being an independent state meant the demand was too much for the printers to fill
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Support of the middle/upper classes

  • reformation primarily attracted labourers and peasants rather than the well educated literate middle and upper classes
  • calvin aimed to convert these classes to aid his reform
  • genevan ministers were all from upper class and so clavin relied on the support of these classes to make it a success
  • was one of the only reformers to focus on the upper classes but not always a success as he was not on the side of authority
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Calvin himself (preaching, teaching etc)

  • without his enormous personal authority and charisma the reformation in Geneva may not have been a success
  • looked to the bigger picture and set his sights to reform France many admired his ambition
  • instilled admoration no adoration "they have always feared me not loved me"
  • was a skilled speaker and preacher even though he was never ordained people came to see his sermons giving 260 in one year
  • spreading the word of reformation was essential in its success and calvin himself worked to spread the word
  • was the most organised reform which would help for obvious reasons
  • development of the printing press meant key works and the reform message could be spread furhter afield however the size of Geneva and being an independent state meant the demand was too much for the printers to fill
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Calvinist church

  • provided and organised way of running a protestant church something that had never been done before
  • calvin set out the aims for his church in the ecclesiastical ordinances and made 4 offices
    • pastors
    • doctors
    • deacons
    • elders
  • clavin set out strict rules such as denouncing fashion items and only wearing simple dress, condemned singing and dancing, gambling, drunkness, swearing and fortune telling were banned and anyone who didnt follow the rules was punished by the consisitry
    • made up of 12 lay elders and all the pastors whose numbers changed as time did
    • had the duty to enforce the high standards set in the ordinances dealt with moral standards and personal conduct ie sexual misconduct and neighbour disputes
    • in 1550 pastors were able to make annual visits to each house to make sure rules were being uphelp
    • punishments could involve humiliations, prison, excommunication or execution
  • organised and strict way calvin ran his church attracted people as they sought a proper attempt to reform
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Con

  • although calvinism came quite late on in the reformation it was still successful
  • calvinist church was extremely important as it allowed for the opposition to be removed one without the other may have hindered their chance for success
  • every small factor played a part in the secon reformation and the success calvin had
  • calvins reform was different to luthers but each had their success in different areas and in calvins reform everything was vital - to remove one fcator would mean the whole reformation falling apart
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