What is a feminist?
Someone who believes that women should have the same status and opportunities as men.
What is a norm?
Rules which guide our behaviour in situations.
What is primary data?
Data collected for the first time by the researcher for a particular peice of research.
What is a pilot study?
A study on a small scale before the main research is done.
What is qualitative data?
Information in the form of text or images, in a detailed description.
What is a marxist?
Someone who believs in the ideas of Karl Marx and sees the main divisions in society as being based on a social class operating a capitalist system.
What does patriarchy mean?
The idea that men dominate society and its institutions.
What is quantitative data?
Information that is presented as numbers which can be analysed using statistics or numbers.
What is a questionnaire? Give ONE advantage and ON
A set of questions used to gather information.
- Easy way to collect information. -Time consuming
What does reliability mean?
Data which can be repeated and consistantly comes up with the same results.
What does representative mean?
Your sample is not biased but the people are typical of those in the larger group.
What is a sample?
The group of people who have been selected for your study.
What is a sampling frame?
A complete list from which your sample is selected.
What is secondary data?
Data that exists, from the internet etc.It can be used alongside primary data also.
What is a social class?
People having the same social status measured by such things as job title and money.
What is social control?
The process by which people are persuaded to obey the rules and to conform.
What is social policy?
Important decisions made by the government that aim to improve the conditions of people living in their society.
What is meant by social stratification?
The way different groups in society are paced at different levels.
What is a social survey?
A collection of information about members of a population.
What is meant by the term socialisation??
The lifelong process of learning the skills, customs and attitudes, norms and values of your culture.
What is meant by the term society?
A group of people who haeve common intersts and a distinctive culture.
What is meant by theoretical perspective?
Looking at a social issue through the eyes of one particular type of theorist.
What is validity?
Data which gives a true picture of what is being studied.
What is meant by the terms values?
The beliefs held by a person or a social group that help to build a set of norms.
Give ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of experim
- Better control -Total control is not possible.
- Allows you to observe more natural behaviour. - More variables to consider.
Give an example of an experiment.
Haney, Banks Zimbardo 1973. A simulate prison was created and 24 volunteers were assigned to the roles of a guard or prisoner. This resulted in the experiment ending early because of the behaviour i was inducing in bothe guards and prisoners.
What is meant by longitudinal study? Give ONE adva
A study conducted over a long period of time.
- Picks up long ter changes. - Expensive
Give an example of a longitudinal study.
7up- TV series- child followed every 7 years from 7 years old. The British household panel survey.
What is non-participant observation? Give ONE adva
Data collected by observing behaviour without interacting with the participants.
- Participants does not need to be involved. - Time consuming.
Give an example of non- participant observation.
Price 1984, used non- participant observation to study the operation of advice centres in Lambeth.
What is participant observation? Give ONE advantag
Study with participants to gain familiarity with a group of individuals.
- In depth knowledge. - Time consuming.
Give an example of participant observation.
Line 1971 who used observation along with questionnaires and interviews to study users needs of social sciences.
Give an example of a questionnaire.
Are you a virgin?
- No, not yet.
100,000 sent out and only 4.5% were returned.
What is a semi-structured interview? Give ONE adva
A method of research involving many open- ended questions with many propmts.
- Large amount of detail generated. - Needs high skilled, trained staff.
Give an example of a semi- structure interview.
Drever, E 1995 used semi- structured interview in small- scale research: A teacher's guide, Edinburgh Scottish Council for research in education.
What is a structured interview? Give ONE advantage
A research method commonly employed in survey research. It is to ensre tht each interview cinductsthe same questions and in the sae order.
- High in reliability - It is time consuming.
Give an example of a structured interview.
The mini- international Neuropsychiactric interview. The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiactric interview for DSm- IV and ICD- 10.
What is an un-structured interview? Give ONE advan
A method of interviews where questions can be changed or adapted to meet the persons intelligence, understanding or blief.
- High in validity - Lack of reliability.
Give an example of an un-structured interview.
Issues of reprocity and risks when dealing with sensiive topics.
Give an example of secondary data.
Give an example of primary data.
What are official statistics? Give ONE advantage a
Statistics published by government agencies or other public bodies such as, international organisations.
- Statistics can be self- fulfilling. - Can sometimes distort the truth.
Give the SIX agents of socialisation.
What is meant by nurture?
We learn by our environment.
What is meant by nature?
We are birn with something.
What is a positivist?
A group of people who believ that the structure of society shapes our behaviour.
What doe the British Sociological Association do?
Sets out guidelines for the conduct of research.
What is a hypothesis?
A prediction about something. Usually a written statement that can be tested and then either supported or proved wrong.
What is a census?
A survey completed evry 10 years, recording the countries population and other details of households.
What does representative mean?
People with the same characteristics of the population as a whole.
You apply your results to your study to the wider population.
What is the hawthorne effect?
When you act un-natural because of an observation or experiment.
What are ethics?
When something is morally wrong or morally right.
What does informed consent mean?
The sociologist explains to the participant what the research is anout and why it is being undertaken.
What does anonymity mean?
The participants privacy should be respected and their information should be kept confidential.
What is confidentiality?
The participants details are kept confidential.
What does social desirability mean?
People like to present themselves in a favourable light.
What is interviewer bias?
Interviewers have social characteristcs such as age, gender etc.
What is over- participant observation? Give ONE ad
Participants are aware they are being observed.
- Risk reduced - Hawthore effect is created.
What is covert- participant observation? Give ONE
The researcher becomes part of the group and joins their daily activities.
- Act natural - Can be dangerous
What is covert non- participant observation? Give
The researcher watches the group from the sidelines and does not become part of the group.
- Does not create the hawthorne effect. - Can be hard to get accurate information.
What is overt non- participant observation? Give O
Researcher does not become involved in group but watches from the sidelines.
- Danger is reduced. - Hard to collect information
Give an example of covert participant observation.
James Patrick, Glasgow Gang.
Give an example of covert non- participant obserav
Laud Humphreys, tea room trade.
Give an example of overt participation,
Barker, making on the moonies. 7 year study.
Give an example of overt non- participant observat
Bain and Taylor, call centre workers.
What is a social structure?
A structure which holds society together.
What is a social process?
A process in which society goes through to obtain norms and values.
What are social issues?
Issues whch effect socety as a whole, nothe good and bad.
What is a functionalist?
Someone who believes that society functions as a whole like the human body.
What is discrimination?
Actions upon prejudice views.
What is prejudice?
Ideas about someone who you have not met, they have been judged before you know them.
What is ageism?
Prejudice based on a person's age.
What is stratification?
The process of being arranged into social strata or classes within a group.
What is a bursary?
An annual grant to a student.
What is meant by socially constructed?
Your society creates what is normal, right and expected.
What is canalisation?
Being channelled into a particular direction.