Studies in Detail - Hofling and Sherif

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  • Created by: Lollipop
  • Created on: 10-01-13 09:51

Hofling et al

Aim - would nurses obey doctors orders if it went againts hospital procedure and harmed a patient

Procedure -

  • 22 female, American nurses
  • 12 public, 10 private hospitals
  • Dr Smith phoned ward and ordered 20mg - double daily dosage of Astrogen - placebo to patient - Mr Jones - stooge
  • Written authorisation requried but Dr was running late so would sign later
  • Study ended when nurses complied or spent more than 10 minutes on the phone

Results - 22 graduate nurses in survey - 21 wouldn't obey

21 nurses in study obeyed, 11 didn't notice overdose and 10 did but thought ok as Dr ordered

Conclusion - nurses obey doctors orders even if it goes against training, procedure and endangers a patient - Nurse and doctor relationship is strong

  • G - lacks generalisability - female so not representative of total population
  • R - scripted and standardised procedure - replicable and tested for reliability
  • A - applied ot real life - nurses obey doctors orders
  • V - ecological - real life setting - natural
  • E - no consent, deception, no right to withdraw unless met conditions, distress
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Sherif et al

Aim - strangers put into groups would form close groups and when in competion groups are hostile to each other

Procedure

  • 22 boys, American, aged 12, white
  • Robbers Cae National Park - Oklahoma - camp
  • 1 - 5 days, groups given tasks to help bond and strengthen group identity - Eagles and Rattlers
  • 2 - 4 days - competition between groups for prizes - penknife
  • 3 - reduce tension - watching films and solving problems - remove truck form mud

Results

  • 1 - bonded with group and disliked other group
  • 2 - competition lead to hostility - burnt flags and stole prizes
  • 3 - reduced hostility - Rattler spent $5 on drinks for groups

Conclusion - hostility occurs when groups know each other and increased with competition wchich lead to discrimination

  • G - lacks generalisability - American, male, 12
  • R - standardised procedure and scripted - easily replicated and tested for reliability
  • A- explins how 2 groups have conflict and prejudice and how 2 groups working together can reduce prejudice
  • V -  ecological - natural setting - camp
  • E - Unethical - no right to withdraw, deception, no consent
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