Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Aim; To test the duration on the STM
Method; read a three letter digit nosense sylalble follwed by three digits, had to count backwards from that number in either threes or fours (distraction task). The participants were then asked to recall the nosense syllable. There were more than one condition, in ech condition the time that the distraction task occoured was differed. Condition one lasted 3 seconds, followed by, 6 seconds, 9 seconds, 12 seconds, 15 seconds and 18 seconds.
Results; The p's accuratly recalled around 90% after three seconds and this rpidly increased to 2% when there was an 18 second distraction
Conclusion; The duration of the short-term memory is roughly twenty seconds when there is no rehersal so information can not be passed through to the long-term memory
Aim: to test the idea that memory in the STM is acoustic and in LTM is semantic
Method; Four groups given our sts of different words to remember. Group one - acoustically similar, Group two - acousticly disimilar, Group three - semantically similar and Group four - semantically disimilar. Then asked to recall the list of words.
Results; He found that p's had problems recalling acoustically similar words from the STM but not the LTM. He also found that p's had problems recalling semantically similar words from the LTM but not the STM.
Conlusion; Information in the short-term memory is acoustic and information in the long-term memory is stored and the long-term memory.
Brandimore et al (1992)
Aim; To test is information can be stored in a visual form in the STM
Method; Gave participants words to remember but prevevnted them from any acoustic rehersal, so the information had to be stored acoustically.
Results; He found that they still rememered the information.
Conclusion; The STM can also store information in a visual form as well as acoustic form.
Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
Aim; to test the idea that the memory consists of seperate stores.
Method; Read out a list of words to participants and asked them to recall the words in any order.
Results; Words from the beginning and the end of the list were recalled more accuratley.
Conclusion; The words from the beginning of the list were stored in the LTM (primary effect) and the words from the end of the list were still in the STM (receny effect)
Bunge et al (2000)
Aim; To provide evidence for the central executive
Method; Used a brain scan called fMRI to see which parts of th brain were active during single and dual tasks.
Results; They found that the same areas of the brain were active in both of the tasks however there was for more activiation during the dual tasks.
Conclusion; The increased attentional demands were strongly reflected with in the brain scans, suggesting that the central executive exists.
The case study of KF
This paitent shows the STM and the LTM work seperatley from each other as he had no problem recalling memories from the LTM but some aspects of immediate recall was impaired. He remembered words much better when they were presented visually rather than acoustically. Suggesting his damage was limited to the phonological loop.
Loftus and Palmer (1974) Part One
Aim; To test the effects of leading questions on immediate recall
Method; Showed all participants the same clip of a car accident. Then asked the participants quetions including one vital question 'How fast were the cars going when they 'verb' each other'. In each group the verb changed it was one of; hit, smashed,collided, bumped and collided.
Results; The estimated speed for verbs such as smashed (40mph) were much greater than other verbs such as contacted (31.8mph)
Conclusion; Leading questions can alter a persons memory post-event information.
Loftus and Palmer (1974) Part Two
Aim; To test the effects of leading questions on a persons past-event information