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  • Created on: 11-04-15 14:43

Attitudes to Food & EB (SLT): Meyer & Gast

-   They surveyed 10 to 12 year old girls and boys and found a significant positive correlation between peer influences and disordered eating. The ‘likeability’ of peers was considered the most important factor in this relationship

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Food & Eating Behaviour (SLT): Birch & Fisher

-    Studied mothers and daughters and found the best predictors of the daughters eating behaviour were the mothers dietary restraint and their perception of the risks of the daughters becoming overweight

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Attitudes to Food & EB (Cultural Infl.): Lawrence

   Women of Bangladeshi and Pakistani backgrounds learned cooking skills from family and took pride in traditional cooking practices. Healthy eating was valued by all women, however when they didn’t have enough time they turned to western junk food – suggests that eating behaviour is affected by time, availability, cost, health factors but also culture

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Attitudes to Food & EB (Cultural Infl): Stefansson

-       found Copper Inuit’s disliked the taste of sugar and were repulsed by it. They had lived in isolation away from other people in a diet of rots and flesh with no experience of consuming anything different. Suggests culture may influence eating habits and preferences but also the cross-cultural preference for sweet tasting foods may not exist

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Attitudes to Food & EB (Cultural Infl.): Xie

Found children and adolescents from high income backgrounds were found to eat more healthy foods than those from lower income families. They consumed less saturated fats, more protein, calcium and ate closer to daily guidelines

However, this research is based on correlational findings and we cannot infer cause and effect from certain that better income relates to healthier eating habits – may be confounding unknown variables contributing in between such as the stress of being poor actually contributing to poor eating habits

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Attitudes to Food & EB (Cultural Infl): Mumford

      Found that incidence of bulimia was greater among Asian schoolgirls than among their white counterparts. Shows body dissatisfaction isn’t necessarily found mostly in white women

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Attitudes to Food & EB (Culture): Striegel-Moore

-   found more evidence of a ‘drive for thinness’ among black girls than among white girls

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Attitudes to Food & EB (Cultural Infl.): Story

-       Found that in a sample of American students, higher social class was related to greater satisfaction with weight and lower rates of weight control behaviours such as vomiting. Other studies have found no relationship between social class and weight dissatisfaction, the desire for thinness and eating disorders. Shows social class may not have an influence on eating behaviour

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Attitudes to Food & EB (Mood): Garg

-      observed the food choices of 38 ppts as they watched either a funny film or a sad film. Ppts were offered popcorn and grapes throughout the films. Those watching the sad film consumed 36% more popcorn than those watching the happy one, but they ate far more grapes than the other group. Those who felt sad due to the film wanted to make themselves happier and thus ate hedonistic foods (popcorn) so they’d get a sudden rush of euphoria. Happy people chose the healthy food in order to extend their upbeat mood

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Attitudes to Food & EB (Mood): Parker

Found that although chocolate has a slight antidepressant effect for some, when consumed as an emotional strategy (e.g. when feeling down) it is more likely to prolong rather than alleviate the negative mood, particularly if used repeatedly 

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Success to dieting: jelly bean exp

135 people given 22 jelly beans each, one at a time. Every time they were told to eat one, info was given to them about it. One group saw general info like ‘bean number one’ whereas the other group saw specific flavor details e.g. cherry flavor number 1’. Ppts got bored with eating beans faster if they saw the general info and enjoyed the task more when they were given the details on the flavor

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Fail: dieting (restraint): Wardles & Beales

Assigned 27 obese women to either a diet group (focusing on restrained eating patterns), an exercise group, or a non-treatment group for 7 weeks. At weeks 4 and 6, all pts were assessed under lab conditions. At week 4, food intake and appetite were assessed before and after a preload i.e. a small snack. At week 6, food intake was assessed under stressful conditions. Results showed that at both assessment sessions women in the diet condition ate more than women in the other conditions

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Fail: dieting (denial): Soetens

-       ppts were divided into restrained and unrestrained eaters, and the restrained group was then subdivided into those who were either high or low on disinhibition. The disinhibited restrained group (i.e. those who would try to eat less but would often overeat) used more thought suppression than the other groups, also showed a rebound effect (i.e. thought about food more) afterwards. Shows that restrained eaters who tend to overeat try to suppress thoughts about food more often, but when they do, think more about food afterwards

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Neural Mechanisms: Zald and Pardo

·         exposed healthy adult ppts to smells while measuring blood flow to the amygdala using PET scans. Exposure to unpleasant smells produced a significant increase in blood flow to the amygdala whereas non-aversive did not cause an increase. Increased blood flow was also associated with subjective ratings of the perceived unpleasantness of the stimuli

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Neural Mechanisms: Gold

·         found lesions restricted to VMH alone did not result in hyperphagia and only produced overeating when they included other areas such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)

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Evolution: Food Preferences: Gibson & Wardle

·   showed the best way to predict which fruit and veg would be preferred by 4-5 year olds was in terms of how dense they were in calories. Bananas and potatoes are particularly calorie-rich and were more likely to be chosen by the children, demonstrating an evolved preference for high calorie foods

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Evolution: Food Preferences: Desor & Steiner

·         found neonates preferred sweet foods compared to bitter suggesting there’s an innate preference. Based on them judging their choice preferences and facial expressions

o    Rules out extraneous variables such as environmental and social learning factors as the neonates are too young to have learn preferences BUT interpreting preference using facial expressions from neonates is subjective and can be easily misinterpreted and thus = unreliable

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Evolution: Food Preferences: Logue

·         found that the human tongue has specific receptors for recognizing sweetness which was not true of other tastes. There are also more receptors for recognising sweetness than any other taste which suggests sweet preference have a preferred adaptive advantage which is shaped by genetics and through evolution

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Evolution: Food Preferences: Stanford

·         when coming close to starvation, chimpanzees will kill and eat the fattiest parts of an animal such as the brain and bone marrow rather than the tender nutritious flesh. Highlights how our behaviour may have been shaped in the EEA and supports the explanation of meat preferences... However this is a animal study... not representative 

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Evolution: Food Preferences: Sandell & Breslin

 35 adults were screened to test them for a gene that makes them more sensitive to bitter foods. They consumed various veg containing Glucosinolates (a toxin). Those with the sensitive version of the gene rated these veg as 60% more bitter than those with the insensitive form of the gene – suggests an adaptive ability to detect and avoid toxic foods which would explain why such genes are more widespread

·         However evidence raises serious ethical concerns: patients are being poisoned and this could cause adverse reactions and are putting lives at risk

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Steiner

       PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY: Parents of AN sufferers had a tendency to define their children’s physical needs rather than allowing children to define their own… with the parent taking control of their child’s needs they may be responding inadequately ... However the parents may be taking control because of the AN because they may feel the children may not be capable of defining their own physical needs due to the illness

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Button and Warren

-       PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY: people with AN rely on other people’s opinions suggesting that they do have not learnt to understand their own needs and due to this worry it means they feel a lack of control over their own lives – these sufferers are thus controlled and not developed a sense of control for themselves over their actions and their body 

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Hami

-       PERSONALITY: investigated the relationship between perfectionism and AN in 322 women with a history of AN across Europe and the US. Results showed that those individuals who had a history of AN scored higher on the multidimensional perfectionism scale when compared to a group of healthy women. In addition, the extent of the perfectionism was directly related to the severity of AN experienced by the women 

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Nilsson

-       PERSONALITY: longitudinal study showing that individuals who had a short duration of AN had lower levels of perfectionism, those with high levels were more at risk of long illness duration

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Becker

-       Sociocultural explanations: ( Cultural ideals/media/SLT)

    Becker et al: Fijian girls begun watching Western TV shows and later stated having a desire to lose weight in order to become like the TV characters – media shapes perceptions of body image

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Lai

·         Sociocultural explanations

o    Cultural ideals/media/SLT

-       the rate of anorexia began to increase for Chinese residents of Hong Kong as the culture became more westernised suggesting culture does influence AN

-       Cannot infer cause and effect of Lai’s research due to being a correlational study and thus over extraneous variables such as individual differences may have contributed. For example, low self-esteem individuals are more influenced by western culture as they develop parasocial relationships with celebrities 

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Hoek

-      ·         Sociocultural explanations

o    Cultural ideals/media/SLT

Hoek et al (1998): examined over 44,000 records of people admitted to hospital between 1987 and 1989 in Curacao, a non-westernised Caribbean island where it’s acceptable to be overweight. They found six cases of AN, and even though it may be a ‘small’ number it suggests that there should be no cases whatsoever had culture been the sole cause of AN. Researchers do in fact actually claim that it’s within the range of rates of AN reported in Western countries

§  Methodological issues with Hoek’s research: based on a small sample of one islands inhabitants à argued to be culturally bias – may only apply to Caribbean people. Measurements were only over a small window of 2 years and perhaps a longer timescale may have been needed à generalizability 

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Jones & Crawford

·         Sociocultural explanations

o    Ethnicity and peer influences

-       found overweight girls and underweight boys were most likely to be teased by their peers, suggesting that through teasing, peers serve to enforce gender-based ideals

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Cachelin & Regan

·         Sociocultural explanations

o    Ethnicity and peer influences

 found no significant differences in prevalence of disordered eating between African-American and white participants

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Roberts

  Sociocultural explanations

o    Ethnicity and peer influences

-    the stereotypical view that white populations have a higher incidence of AN than black populations appears to be true only in older adolescents

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Anorexia: Psych expl.: Shroff and Thompson

  Sociocultural explanations

o    Ethnicity and peer influences

 : found no correlation among friends on measures of disordered eating in an adolescent sample. Gender differences found by Jones and Crawford did not appear until adolescence

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Anorexia: Bio expl: Castro-Fornieles

·         Neural explanations

§  Neurotransmitters

-       found that adolescent girls with AN had higher levels of homovanillic acid (a waste product of dopamine) than a control group. Improvements in weight levels was associated with normalization of homovanillic acid, meaning levels of dopamine appear to be related to body weight

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Anorexia: Bio expl: Favaro

·         Neural explanations

§  Neurodevelopment

 found that perinatal (immediately before or after birth) complications were significantly associated with the risk of developing AN were placental infarction (obstructed bloody supply in the placenta), early eating difficulties and a low birth weight

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