Clifasefi et al (2006)
Asked eye witnesses who were either drunk or completly sober to watch a video of student playing basketball to determine the effects of alcohol on the activity of peripheral vision.
82% of the drunk participants failed to notice a man in a gorilla suit walking across the screen.
Not a neccessary study to learn.
Ainsworth et al (1978)
- Strange Situation
- Tested infants between 9 &18 months under conditions of mild stress to determine their attachment types. (Studies in Uganda 1967, and Baltimore 1971.)
- Sqaure room with 16 squares on the floor, 8 episodes of 3 minutes each
- Mother and child play in a room.
- Stranger enters room and sits with parent.
- Parent leaves child with stranger.
- Parent returns and comforts infant, stranger leaves
- Parent leaves infant alone
- Stranger enters
- Parent enters
- Stranger leaves
Found that 66% of infants were securely attached, 22% insecure avoidant, and the reamining 12% insecure resistant.
Lorenz's work is important as it supports Bowlby's theory of attachment; it shows imprinting in goslings is innate, and that they don't have a ready built image of their natural mothers.
Lorenz seperated a clutch of gosling eggs into two groups.
- Stayed with their natural mother, and were later observed following her around in the normal fashion.
- Taken to a laboratory, where they hatched. The first moving thing they saw was Lorenz, so they imprinted on him and followed him around.
Harry Harlow (1959)
Harlow's Origins of Love experiment on Rhesus Monkeys is important as it undermines Learning Theory.
Harlow created two wire mothers for the monkeys. One provided food for the monkeys and the other was wrapped in a soft cloth, but offered no food.
When the monkeys were scared or in need of comfort, they clung to the cloth mother, and would leave to get sustainence from the mother providing food, then return to the cloth mother.
This shows that food is not one of the most important factors in forming attachments, and suggests that responsiveness and contact comfort are both parts of forming an attachment.
Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
Schaffer and Emerson observed 60 babies from mainly working class homes in Glasgow for a year.
They found that the children are not most attached to those who feed them, but those who are most responsive to them, interacted with them and paid the most attention to them.
This suggests that 'cupboard love' is not likely to be the best explaination for attachment, although association and reinforcement may be part of the story.