Freud. (psychodynamic drive theory).
You are motivate to learn because it helps you satisfy your life drive. (Eros).
(there two basic unconseous life drives- "life"= Eros, "death"= Thantos).
Hierarchy of needs.
3)Love and Belong...
No one ever gets to the top of the hierarchy. You can't satisfy the needs of higher levels unitil the lower ones are met.
The way you perceive events in your life can affect motivation, people attribute in different ways.
Attribution is a 3 stage process-
1) observing a specific behaviour. 2) Determining whether the behaviour was intentional. 3) Attributing the behaviour to internal or external causes.
The most important factors when making attributions are ability, effort, task difficulty and luck.
Locus of control (internal or external), Stabiltiy (whether the cause changes over time or not) and Controllabilty (whether the cause is within control or not).
Attribution theory suggests people make self-serving attributions.
(page 197 of revision guide)
Conducted a longitudinal experiment where 123 Africa-American students who were subjected to, what is called a high/scope pre-school experience of "guided play" were, in later childhood and adult life, compared with a control group who had not.
This high/scope programme consisted of adult guided activities, the the control group we can assume the children played self-organised.
The guided play fared better than the control in aspects such as IQ, Educational Achievement, Value on Education, Earnings, Criminality, Parenting illegitimate children.
Goleman (emotional intelligence).
To be a successful learner you need to have a good understanding of yours and other people's emotions.
Student who under-perform in school tend to have a low EI (pertrides et al).
1) Self-Awareness, understanding your behaviour.
2) Self-Management, managing your feelings e.g. anger.
3) Social Awareness, relating with other people.
4) Relationship Management, communications with others.
DFES (ability grouping)
86 Y6 ppts followed through to Y9 (by which time it was 31 due to subject attrition)
Measured on their performance e.g. SAT's scores, which was compared to their expectations
Overall, grouping didn't produce a gain in educational achievement
Those who did gain, were in the higher ability groups
Pupils in lower groups made less progress and developed more anti-school attitues
All classes, regardless of being setted or not had a wide range of abilities
Labeling children as "Bloomers" makes them become "Bloomers" (Setting)
Riley (1995) (conforming to the role of a student)
Those who don't conform tend to underperform
Reading development was assessed as they progressed from basic literacy to early reading, this was compared to how positively they'd adjusted to their new school and role as students
Children who had a slow or negative adjustment to school were 4x worse at reading by the end of their first year compared to those who had a quick and positive adjustment
Willingness to conform will affect your academic success
Findings are only correlational so cause and effect can't be established, individual differences weren't accounted for
Seligman (learned helplessness)
He subjected rats and dogs to electric shock
At first they tried to escape (though they couldn't)
After several attempts they didn't bother trying to escape, even when an escape route was provided
He then led ppts to believe that puzzles were difficult and therefore unlikely to succeed, they gave up in trying, but those who were told could succeed would keep trying. The learned helplessness was also transferred onto subsequent tasks
Shows us not to give students tasks beyond their abilities as this could be demotivating and create learned helplessness
Maslow's hierarchy of needs suggest you need to feel you are accepted by others and that you belong before you can focus on improving yourself intellectually
Carl Rogers (humanist) agrees with this so developed the idea of Student-Centered learning to help boost self-esteem
1) Needs of the student are put first
2) Only topics that have direct relevance to the student and their furture are covered
3) Students are encourages to take an active role in their education, rather than just passively receiving information
Believes this will enable students to learn more by experimental leaning, "we learn by doing"
Students will feel more confident, motivated and assertive