Strucutre and Bonding

C2 1

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  • Created by: Moodymoo
  • Created on: 17-02-14 14:12


  • When atoms of two or more elements react they make a compound
  • A commpound contains two or more elements which are chemically combined
  • Difficult to get the elements back again easily

Why do atoms react?

  • Most atoms dont have the stable and unreactive structure like the noble gases in group 0
  • When atoms react they make changes to give themselves stable structures to give them a stable arrangement of electrons



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Ionic Bonding

  • Loose or gain atoms
  • Form charged particles called ions

Loosing Electrons

  • Ions have the electronic structure of a noble gas e.g. soduim 2,8,1 goes to 2,8
  • Left with one more proton in the nucleus so it has a positive charge
  • Becomes a positively charged ion

Gaining Electrons

  • When non-metals react with metals the non-metal atoms gain electons to acheive a stable noble gass structure
  • e.g. chlorine 2.8,7 gains and electon and becomes 2,8,8
  • Now one more electron some it becomes negatively charged
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Ionic Bonding Structure

  • Ions are held next to eachother by stong forces of attraction between oppositley charged ions
  • The electrostatic force of attraction which acts in all directions is called ionic bonding
  • The bonds between the particles result in an arrangement of ions that is called a giant structure (or giant lattice)
  • Pack together neatly, like marbles in a box      
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Covalent Bonding

  • Atoms of non-metals generally need to gain electrons to become stable
  • They share electons
  • The atoms in the molecules are held together by the shared pairs of electrons

Giant Covalent Structures

  • Referred to as macromolecules
  • Diamond has a giant covalent structure. In diamond, each carbon atom forms covalent bonds with four of its neighbouring atoms
  • Results in a rigid covalent lattice
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  • Atoms in metals are built up layer upon layer in a regualr pattern
  • Means they form crystals

Metallic Bonding

  • Metal is a lattice of positively charged ions
  • Outer electrons can easily move throughout the giant structure
  • Outer electrons form a 'sea' of free electrons surrounding positively charged metal ions
  • Attraction between the negatively charged electrons and the positively charged ions bond them together
  • Delocalised electrons are no longer linked with any particular ion
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