Structures and Bonding

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Ionic Bonding

  • The strong electrostatic attraction between the ions holds the ions together ( Ionic Bond)
  • Ions are packed together in a regular arrangement, called a crystal lattice
  • The lattice is a giant structure with strong ionic bonds throughout the structure
  • Happens between one metal and one non- metal atom
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Writing Ionic Formulae

  • Every ionic compound contains both positive and negative ions
  • The total positive charge must be equal to the total negative charge so the overall compound is uncharged
  • Eg. Magnesium Bromide
  • Mg  , Br
  • Therefore, a magnesium ion needs two bromide ions to make the compound neutral
  • The formula is MgBr
  • Eg. Calcium Hydroxide
  • Ca  , OH
  • Therefore, a calcium ion needs two hydroxide ions to make the compound neutral
  • The formula is Ca (OH)
  • This is because hydroxide contains two different elements, so they have to be put into brackets

The Crossover Rule: Write out the ions with their charges. Take the number on each charge and swap it with the opposite one:

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Covalent Bonding

  • Formed between two non- metals
  • The atoms share electrons to get a full outer shell
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Metallic Bonding

  • Bonds between metals
  • Electrons are free to move between atoms
  • Strong bonds so the metals can maintain their structure and have a high boiling/ melting point
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