- Regulates movement of substances in and out of cell
- Receptor molecules that respond to chemicals.
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- Folds in the plasma membrane
- ↑ SA of surface area= ↑ rate of absorption (mainly found in epithelial cells of the S.intestines.
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- Nuclear envelope that surrounds the nucleus. It contains nuclear pores- allows the passage of large molecules e.g. mRNA.
- Nucleoplasm- granular, jelly like material that makes up the bulk of the nucleus.
- Chromatin- DNA found in the nucleoplasm- diffuse form that chromosomes take up when the cell isn't dividing.
- Nucleolus- spherical body- makes ribosomal RNA and assembles ribosomes.
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- Double membrane- outer controls entry and exit of material; inner folded to form cristae.
- Cristae- provide a large SA for attachment of enzymes during respiration.
- Matrix- semi-rigid material containing proteins, lipids and traces of DNA- allows it to control the production of its own proteins.
- Site of respiration so produces ATP; ↑ level of metabolic activity= ↑ in number and size of mitochondria.
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- ribosomes present
- provides large SA for synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins
- provides pathway for the transport of materials throughout the cells.
- no ribosomes
- synthesizes, store and transports lipids and carbohydrates.
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- modifies proteins; adding non-protein components to them.
- transported in vesicles, move to the cell surface membrane, fuse to the membrane and release contents to the outside (exocytosis).
- produces secretory enzymes
- secretes carbohydrates
- transports, modifies and stores lipids
- forms lysosomes.
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- formed when the GA's vesicles contain enzymes.
- isolate the enzymes from the rest of the cell before releasing them to the outside or into a phagocytic vesicles within the cell.
- breaks down material ingested by phagocytic cells.
- digest worn out organelles.
- breaks down cells after they've died.
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80S type- found in eukaryotic cells
70S type- found in prokaryotic cells (slightly smaller than 80S type)
- two subunits- containing ribosomal RNA and protein.
- protein synthesis
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