Structure and Bonding - AQA Additional Chemistry

Topic 1 of the AQA Higher Chemistry Course

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  • Created by: Kirsty
  • Created on: 15-04-10 11:56

Atomic Structure


  • The nucleus of an atom contains - Protons (with a charge of +1) and Nuetrons (with a charge of 0)
  • Electrons (with a charge of -1) orbit the nucleus

Atomic Number

  • Number of protons present in the nucleus
  • The elements are arranged in order of the atomic numbers in the periodic table
  • The number of protons = The number of electrons
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Arrangement of electrons

  • Electrons are in energy levels that can be reprsented as 'shells'
  • Electrons in the lowest energy level are closest to the nucleus
  • Electrons occupy the lowest energy level first with 2 electrons, the other levels contain 8 electrons
  • All elements in a group of the periodic table have the same number of outer electrons
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Chemical Bonds

  • Compounds are substances which a chemically combined
  • When elements react the atoms form a stable arragement of electrons
  • Atoms can gain or lose electrons to form ionic bonds
  • Atoms share electrons to form covalent bonds
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Ionic Bonding

  • Electrons are gained or taken by atoms to from ions
  • Compound made of ions form very regular giant structures
  • Strong forces of attraction form a lattice which hole the ions together
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Covalent Bonding

  • When 2 atoms share a pair of electrons a covalent bond is formed
  • The number of bonds formed depends on the number of electrons an atom needs to forms a stable electron arangment
  • mst covalent bonded substances consist of small molecules, but some have giant structures
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Bonding In Metals

  • Metals have giant structures of layers of atoms arranged in a regular patten
  • (Higher) The electrons in the outer shell delocalise resulting in strong electrostatic forces between these electrons and the positively charged metal ions
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