Structure & Bonding

  • Created by: Aleena
  • Created on: 04-11-18 15:51

Dative Covalent (Co-ordinate) Bonding

A Dative covalent bond differs from covalent- only in its formation


Both electrons of the shared pair are provided by one species (donor) & it shares the electrons with the acceptor

Donor species will have lone pairs* in their outer shells

*a pair of electrons occupying an orbital in an atom or molecule and not directly involved in bonding.

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Strong & Weak Bonds

Types of Chemical Strong Bonds:

  • Ionic (or electrovalent)
  • covalent
  • dative covalent
  • metallic

Types of Physical Weak Bonds:

  • van der waals forces
  • dipole-dipole interaction
  • hydrogen bonds
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Electron Affinity & Ionisation Energy

First Ionisation Energy: the energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons (to infinity) from  1 mole of atoms in gaseous state to form 1 mole of cations in gaseous state.

Equations to show Ionisation energy: use half equations with (g) state symbols


  • Ionisation energy increases as you go across a period
  • Ionisation energy decreases as you go down a group

Factors that affect Ionisation energy:

  • no. of protons increase=more energy
  • atomic radius (size) increase=less energy (as electron is further away from nucleus-less attraction)
  • more shells aka more sheilding=less energy

Electron Affinity: amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom/molecule (mostly) in the gaseous state to form an anion. Increases across period and up a group.

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