Structure & Bonding

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  • Created by: poppylown
  • Created on: 19-01-16 18:40

Bonding - quick revision

  • Atoms form bonds to make a full outer shell
  • Configuration: 2,8,8
  • Group 0 are monoatomic atoms - they go round by themselves so aren't bonded
  • G0 are stable (noble gases)
  • Atom with an incomplete outershell are less stable
  • Delocalised: not attached/attracted
  • All bonds involve elections
  • Number of protons don't change
  • All bonding involves changes of number of elections in outer shell
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Loss (of electrons)



Gain (of electrons)

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Properties of Ionic Compounds

  • High melting point
  • Does not conduct as solid - as it is in a fixed lattice
  • Conducts in aqueous and liquid because the ions are free to move and carry charge
  • Anode = positive 
  • Cathode = negative
  • Most ionic componds dissolve in water
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Covalent Bonding

  • Covalent bonding is a shared pair of electrons
  • Occurs between non-metal atoms
  • Molecules have no charge
  • Three covalent bonds: simple covalent bonding, giant covalent structures, polymers
  • Weak intermolecular force - low boiling point
  • Molecules are always covalently bonded
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Simple Covalent Molecules

  • Do not conduct - mainly insulators
  • Low melting point - weak intermolecular force
  • Some react, some dissolve, some are insoluble
  • Maiinly gases and liquids
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Giant Covalent Structures

  • Graphite can conduct, but mainly insulators
  • High melting point - many strong covalent bonds
  • Insoluble
  • Generally solids

An alloy = a mixture of two or more metals

Too little added metal: soft

Too much added metal: brittle 

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Metallic Bonding

  • Conducts heat
  • Hard
  • A metallic bond is a bond that has a strong electrostatic attraction between positive ions and a sea of delocalised electrons.
  • The delocalised electrions are free to move
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Metallic Bonding - by definition

Metallic Bonding is the strong attraction between closely packed positive metal ions and a 'sea' of delocalised electrons. 

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Ionic Bonding - by definition

Ionic Bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions

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Covalent Bonding - by definition

A Covalent Bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bondingpairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as Covalent Bonding. 

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Examples of Metallic Bonding


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Examples of Covalent Bonding


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Examples of Ionic Bonding


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