Stress: Managing stress

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Meichenbaum: Stress Inoculation Therapy

Aim: To compare SIT with standard behaviour systematic desensitisation and a control gorup on a waiting list 

Method: Field experiment, assed before and after treatment self-report, assessed blind 

Participants: 21 participants, self-selected

Design: independent mesures, matched pairs design 

Procedure: Each participant tested suing test-anxiety questionnaire and then split into 3 groups: 1) SIT 2) Systematic desensitisation 3) Control 

Results: Performance on anxiety test imporved in SIT 

Conclusion: SIT is an effectiveway to control and minalise stress and it is more effective than systematic desensitisation 

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Budzynski et al: Biofeedback and reduction of tens

Aim: To see if previous research on biofeedback of a method of reducing tension headaches was due to the placebo effect or whether biofeedback was an effective method of reducing tension head aches 

Method: experimental, with patients being trained in a lab and data collected by using muscle tension and a psychometric test of depression + questionaire on headaches 

Participants: 18 participants who were self-selected 

Design: Indepentdent measures, P's placed randomly into three groups: 1) group A actually had biofeedback B) relaxation techniques but pseudo-feedback C) control group on a waiting list 

Procedure: for 2 weeks before experiment P's were asked to take a log of their headaches these were the baseline. Group A and B were given 16 sessions. Each group recorded headache activity. After 3 months A and B were given EMG feedback and completed a questionnaire plus MMPI 

Findings: # Group A's muscle tension was lower than B's # A's headaches dropped # Both groups reported better social lifes # A showed bigger reduction in hypochondriasis 

Conclusions:Biofeedback is an most effective method of reducing stress  

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Waxler-Morrison et al: Social relationships and ca

Aim: To look at how a women's social relationships influence their reponse to breast cancer and survival 

Method: A quasi experiment with women who were diagnoised with breast cancer, info gathered through questionnaires and interviews + medical records 

Participants: 133 women under 55 who 

Design: Independent measures, different levels of social networks 

Procedure: P's were given questionnaires to gather info about social netowrks and demographics. Questions also including education, no. of children. Details of diagnosis gained from medical records.

Findings: # Six aspects of social network linked to survival: 1. martial status 2. friends 3. contact with friends 4. total support 5. social network 5. emplyment # Qualitative data showed that pracical help e.g. taking care of children was fundamental # Married women reported supportive husbands # Jobs were important as a source of support

Conclusions: Several characteristics of a womens social network were linked to survival. However the state at which the cancer is diagnosed is still the most important factor   

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