Stress Management and Studies for Life Changes

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Stress Innoculation Training (Psychological method


Control, Commitment, Challenge


1) Conceputalisation: "global to specific" - looking at life in perspective

- Therapist and Client form a relationship

- View perceived threats as problems that can be solved

- Challenge

2) Skills Aquisition Phase: Skills: positive thinking, relaxation, social skills (support)/time management/attention diversion ( catastrophising/overthinking

3) Application Phase: Role play/imagery: learn how to cope with stressors in situations, practice and apply to the situation.
Evalutation: Targets fears/deal with them/YAVIS

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Bio methods of stress management

Drug therapy

- BZ's - an anxiolytic (anti-anxiety drug), reduces nerve cell activity, brain and body can prepare for action/doensn't panic. Reduces CNS, communicates to having the thought and doing the action - reduce stress response and reaction. NEUROTRANSMITTER. It's tackling the chemical serotonin which is associated with mood, alertness and sleep. Serotonin antagonists. Enhances GABA (relaxant naturally in you)

EVALUATION: addiction, withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, side effects, easy to use, works in placebos


No impact on the brain, still think about the stressor but changes how your body reacts to stress. The adrenaline will still be released from the chronic stressors but the heart receptors are blocked. They reduce the SNS response.

EVALUATION: Not solving problems or the cause, just tackling the system

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Workplace Stress: response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that aren't matched to their knowledge and abilities and it challenges their ability to cope. Causes a stress reaction in our body.

Workload: the amount of work to be done by someone or something

Control: the power to influence or direct people's behavious or the course of events

Internal Validity: what actually happens in a study, in an experiment, has the IV had an effect on the DV? Or was the DV caused by other factors. What its intending to measure.

External Validity: whether the findings of a study really can be generalised beyond the present study. There are two types of external validity.

Life changes: the events that require a major transition in your life. If our normal routines are disrupted we have to think about things that would usually be "autopilot", Rupture in emotions.

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Holmes and Rahe - SRRS

Holmes and Rahe:

- Listed 43 positive and negative stressful life events

- 400 participants then scored how much adjustment would be required by an avergae person

-marriage was the arbituary baseline of 50, The higher the adjustment, the higher the score - scores were then averaged to find an LCU score


Individual differences caused a large issue

There is no differientation between positive and negative stressors/life changes

Self Report always causes issues. People want to remain in social desirability

Illness is caused by other factord such as immune system

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Rahe et Al (support for the SRRS)


- 2,700 American male soldiers board 3 navy cruises, given the SRRS

- health records were kept for each participants and an illness score was calculated


Weak positive correlation of 0.118 between LCU scores and illness scores


They are all male and all american, British navy may act differently

May be more optimistic just before they leave

Large sample size/ self-report/ it's their job

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