Stress

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CausesOfStress- WorkAsACause

Poor working enviroments- noisy, temperature, risk?
Deadlines = Pressure = responsibility, Competitive
Money and work-life balance.

Johansson
24 workers at swedish sawmill.
14 high risk- complex, danger, responsible for own and others wages.
10 control group- cleaners

Used pysiological methods to measure stress- urine samples.

Risk grp- adrenaline increased throughout the day showing stress
Control- decreased 

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Causes Of Stress- Hassles and Uplifts

Frequent little everyday events builing up.
Early mornings, public transport, other people, running out of milk, weather.
Life events different- aren't frequent but have more of an impact - deaths.

Kanner et al
216 questionnaires sent out- 109 participants, 9 dropped out, protestants
10 months - completed self report questionnaires.
About: Hassles, Uplifts, Life Events, Hopkins symptoms checklist

Hassles consistent each month
Hassles correlated with hopkins symptoms checklist showing hassles predictor of stress. 

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Causes Of Stress- Lack Of Control

No control over: public transport, death, exams.
Stress occurs due to the consequences of these events- e.g being late due to public transport. Anticipation of these consequences = stress. 
If we have 'percieved control' we feel less stressed. 

Geer & Maisel
60 psychology students
Shown photos of dead car crash victims and measured Galvanic Skin Response
3 conditions- control and predicability- Button terminating photo, tone preceding
No control but had predictability- Tone preceding but HAD to see photo for time
No control or predictability- Told would randomly hear tones and photos

No control but had predictability = most stress response.
Least- Control & predictability 

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Measures Of Stress- Physiological Measures

Physiological involves measuring stress response. - Objective.
Polygraph- Measures blood pressure, HR, GSR,
Heart rate electrodes- electrodes monitor electric volts that occur when heart beats. Reciever detects this via radio signals to determine HR.
Biochemical analysis- analysis of blood, urine or saliva to asses hormone levels. - look for adrenaline. 

Johansson

24 workers at swedish sawmill.
14 high risk- complex, danger, responsible for own and others wages.
10 control group- cleaners

Used pysiological methods to measure stress- urine samples to look for adrenaline. And body temp taken 4 times a day.

Risk grp- adrenaline increased throughout the day showing stress
Control- decreased 

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Measures Of Stress- Self Report

Focus on measuring the stressor not stress response
Subjective- open to interpretation.
Questionnaires - likert scales, Interviews, Diaries. 

Kanner et al
216 questionnaires sent out- 109 participants, 9 dropped out, protestants
10 months - completed self report questionnaires.
About: Hassles, Uplifts, Life Events, Hopkins symptoms checklist

Hassles consistent each month
Hassles correlated with hopkins symptoms checklist showing hassles predictor of stress. 

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Measures of Stress- Combined Approach

Physiological and self report and use triangulation. 
Using both overcomes the limitations of each one- subjectivity, etc.

Johansson

24 workers at swedish sawmill.
14 high risk- complex, danger, responsible for own and others wages.
10 control group- cleaners

Used pysiological methods to measure stress- urine samples.
Used Self report to measure mood alertness, wellbeing. 

Risk grp- adrenaline increased throughout the day showing stress

Control- decreased  

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TechniquesForManagingStress- Cognitive

Cognitive- assumes internal processess influence our behaviour. Can attempt to modify irrational thoughts to help cope with stress better.
Cognitive symptoms: lack of concentration, negative thoughts, anger
Stress innoculation theory- SIT 8+ sessions
- makes patient aware of nature of their stress.
Initial conceptualization- identify stressors and irrational thinking, educated patient on stress
Skills acquisition and rehersal-Client learns coping strategies when ready, tailored to induvidal. positive reframing, practice techniques. 
Application and follow through- opportunity to practice coping skill, e.g, role playing of feared or stressful scenario. 

Michenbaum
Used SIT on 21 students with exam anxiety
Performance in tests with SIT groups showed more success

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TechniquesForManagingStress- Behavioural

Behavioural- assumes behaviour are learnt from enviroment so learn through experience.
Manages stress response not cause of stress.
Often uses classical conditioning to unlearn stress response.

Systematic Desensitization 10 sessions
Create fear hierarchy, find positive association, start assocation with paired learning of stressor.
So stressful scenario = fearful stimulus. Pair with postive stimulus to create a conditioned response.Gradual Exposure
GIVE EXAMPLES.

McGrath
9 year old Lucy
Fear of sudden loud noises - e.g part poppers, firworks
Imagined at home with her toys.
Fear for popping balloons decreased from 7/10 to 3/10

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TechniquesForManagingStress- Social Support

4 types of social support:
Emotional- offering empathy, affection, concern to let induvidual know they're valued.
Tangible- financial assistance, material goods
Informational- giving advice, guidance or suggestions
Companionship- gives sense of social belonging, engage in social activites with.
Distinction  betweeen pericieved and recieved support.

Waxler-Morrison
Qausi with 133 women diagnosed with breast cancer.
Questionnaire- perception of support, marital status, contact with friends & family,

Practical help with childcare, transport to hosptials, cooking were concrete aspect of support.
Concluded social support correlated with survival rates. 

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