FOR- Charles Darwin - Primal Hordes
- Groups of people, one dominant male, had authority over the group and had claim to all the females.
- Over time resentment of younger males grew, they all grouped together and killed the dominant male.
- This helps to show why religion is universal, as it shows the Oedipus complex at a historical level, not just as personal trauma.
"Religion is an illusion and it derives its strength from the fact that it falls in line with our instinctual desires" - (S.F, new introductory lectures on psychoanalysis)
Evidence to show that religion results from buried
- 5 case studies, wolfman, who had a phobia of animals, witnessed sexual acts between his parents, and developed a fear of wolves and God. (Animism)
- Redirecting guilt onto something else.
- Totem is a transformation of father.
- Case study demonstrated that people suffering from Oedipus complex transfer fear into animals
- Also gives more evidence to primal horde as they used dominant male as their totem and this became the identity of their group.
AGAINST - No anthropoligical evidence for primal h
- Not now accepted that people were grouped in hordes
- Much wider variety
- Not all societies had totem objects, therefore there is no evidence for ambivalent attitudes.
- Idea that guilt is handed down = discredited
- Damages Freud's claim that religion is guilt bases because it removes a major source of guilt.
"Almost all the evidence Freud presents has been discredited in one way or another" - Matthew Palmer
Psychological evidence for Oedipus complex
Major critic = Bronislow Malonwski
- Freud needed the complex to be universal for it to be the cause of all religion
- Malonwski attacked this - trobriand race, father is more of a weak nurse.
- No evidence for complex therefore religion must of existed elsewhere.
Negative view of religion
David Winnicott- " Religion is an essential buffer between the mind and external reality"
- source of comfort
- Ana - Maria Rizzuto "Religion is no more of an illusion than science"
- Freud replaced religion with an illusion rather than removing the illusion of it.
"It seems that the verdict must be not proven" - John Hick
A narrow selection of evidence
- Only looked at a few socities, he failed to take into account religions based upon female deities
- Too much emphasis on the male
- Generalised the results of c.s assuming o.c was everywhere