Strengths and weaknesses

  • Created by: eng_e
  • Created on: 03-06-18 11:06

Experiments

LAB: 

Strengths: Scientific research, no confounding variables, easier to establish cause and effect
Weaknesses: Low ecological validity, demand characteristics

FIELD:

Strengths: High ecological validity, ps unaware (less demand characteristics)
Weaknesses: Lack of control as a result of confounding variables, difficult to replicate

QUASI:

Strengths: Can be used in situations in which it would be ethically unacceptable to manipulate IV, less likelihood of demand characteristics
Weaknesses: More expensive and time consuming, no control over extraneous variables e.g. participant variables

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Observations

STRUCTURED:

Strengths: More objective, higher inter-rater reliability, easier to replicate
Weaknesses: May miss important data, observers should be trained

UNSTRUCTURED:

Strengths: Can generate lots of data, less likely to miss events
Weaknesses: Subjective, less likely to have high inter-rater reliabilty, difficult to replicate and analyse

PARTICIPANT:

Strengths: High in ecological validity, rich data, no demand characteristics
Weaknesses: Ethical issues, difficult to replicate, difficult to record data

NON-PARTICIPANT:

Strengths: Objective, easy to record data
Weaknesses: Demand characteristics

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Sampling

OPPORTUNITY:

Strengths: Quick, easy, cheap, easy to replicate
Weaknesses: Bias, not representative of whole population

VOLUNTEER:

Strengths: Quick, practical, ethical, interested and motivated
Weaknesses: Particular type of person volunteers, not representative

SNOWBALL:

Strengths: Practical, easy to replicate, wide variety of ps
Weaknesses: Time conusming, sample bias

RANDOM:

Strengths: Representative, no bias
Weaknesses: Time consuming, complex, often impossible

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Observations 2

CONTROLLED:

Strengths: More reliable and replicable, usually overt so low in ethical issues
Weaknesses: Low in ecological validity, demand characteristics/social desirability

NATURALISTIC: 

Strengths: High in ecological validity, no demand characteristics
Weaknesses: Low reliability, ethical issues

COVERT:

Strengths: No demand characteristics, natural behaviour
Weaknesses: Ethical issues

OVERT:

Strengths: No ethical issues
Weaknesses: Possible demand characteristics

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Sampling 2

EVENT:

Strengths: More objective, high inter-rater reliabilty, easier to replicate
Weaknesses: May miss important data, observers need to be trained

TIME:

Strengths: Manageable way of sampling
Weaknesses: May miss behaviours in time periods not observing

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Interviews

STRUCTURED:

Strengths: Easy to replicate, quick, high inter-rater reliabilty, easy to compare answers
Weaknesses: Low in ecological validity, restricting ps on what they say

UNSTRUCTURED:

Strengths: Detailed information, qualitative, high in ecological validity
Weaknesses: Difficult to summarise, analyse for trends and make comparisons

SEMI-STRUCTURED:

Strengths: Detailed and quantifiable data

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Experimental designs

REPEATED MEASURES:

Strengths: Controlled p variables, use fewer ps, cost and time effective
Weaknesses: Order effects, demand characteristics

MATCHED:

Strengths: No order effects, no demand characteristics, controls p variables
Weaknesses: Time consuming, impossible to match completely

INDEPENDENT MEASURES:

Strengths: No order effects, no demand characteristics, less time consuming
Weaknesses: No control of extraneous p variables, large samples needed

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Data

QUANTITATIVE:

Strengths: Easy to compare, summarise, reliable
Weaknesses: Narrow, low in ecological validity

QUALITATIVE:

Strengths: Rich in detail, more valid
Weaknesses: Harder to make comparisons and trends in data

PRIMARY: 

Strengths: Data collected to specifically inform pyschologists' research, know how it was gathered= controls so higher validity

SECONDARY:

Strengths: Would be impossible/expensive to collect themselves, trends over time can be analysed
Weaknesses: May not have been collected in valid/reliable way

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