- Created by: 13gpascoe
- Created on: 06-01-20 10:24
- 28th Jan 1547 HVIII dies. Eng = at war with Fr & Scot, Pope = enemy, no alliance with HRE
- 1533 Act of Succession - Mary = *******. 1536 Act of Succession, Eliz = *******. 1543 Act of Succession, superseeded 1533&36 returning Mary & Eliz to line of succession. DOESN'T LEGITIMISE his daughters but gives them legal rights to the throne. It DOESN'T say they are not *******s - MQS will use this against Eliz.
- Child kings have historically caused major problems; Richard II, Henry VI...
- Dynasty - 1538 = Exeter conspiracy, Poles are still going for power (although Maggie Pole was executed) Yorkist threat still exists with Edward Courtenay in the Tower. (He will be released from the Tower in August 1553.) 2 girls in succession after Ed - ENG has never had a QUEEN!!
- Gov - power of monarchy has increased but FACTIONAL RIVALRY
- Scot - at war. Rough Wooing. France want Calais and Boulougne.
- Finance - Great Debasements of the 1540's > inflation. Farming more sheep because there's an economic slump. Pop ^ but starvation = BIG issue, harvest is failing.
- Enclosure > less sheep farmed (Cloth trade had slumped) > unemployment.
- Relig - 1547 = National Catholicism
But Henry did: found the Eng Navy & Ch of Eng, brought the Renaissance to Eng, established the Kingdom of Ireland, remodelled Gov and taxation, translated the Bible into Eng ... !!
Edward - King @ age 9. No spare heir so no expense spared in looking after him. C.Parr was in charge of Ed's edu - taught by humanists and prots e.g Coxe & Cheke. Very studious & intelligent, PC are going to let him take over at 16 not 18! Serious, self-disciplined, cold, v.short entry in his diary when uncle Seymour killed. (Played little role in gov until Somerset fell, more influential under NL.) Healthy child BUT in 1533 - chest infection >TB and probably septicaemia. (He was not always a sickly child, fever age 4, measles & smallpox age 14 but otherwise in good health.
Will Ed be a good king??
- YES: Very self-disciplined and serious, devoted to his studies (spent hours a day - 6 foreign languages!) Coxe - believed learning should be enjoyed. Had good manners, took imp lessons in statecraft and gov, v.knowledgable about the nobility & gentry & their beliefs. Fascinated by sources of revenue for 100 years war campaign. Never allowed to incur dangers of contact sports, walls & floors of his apartment washed 3 times a day!!
- NO - brought up by women, saw little of H8. Coldness towards others - uncle's death, 2 mentions of Eliz in his Chronicle. Distrustful, could be vindictive. SHELTERED.
Regency Council & Mid-Tudor Crisis
Henry's will: Regency Council
- Intended there to be equal no's from both Ref & Cons factions. Created a Regency Council, that would rule for Ed until he came of age. 16 men on Reg Council.
- Gardiner & Norfolk are both in the Tower.
- Mems = Cranmer - AB of Canterbury, REF. Sir Anthony Denny - had access to King's Chamber, REF. John Dudley - Somerset's right hand man, REF. Sir William Paget - access to King's Chamber, only politician to serve ALL 4 monarchs !! His religion is 2nd to his politics, NEUTRAL. Paulet - builds economy, NEUTRAL. Russell - puts down W.Rebellion, REF. Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford becomes Somerset, REF. Some Caths-Sir Anthony Browne.
MID TUDOR CRISIS~some Historians believe from H8 death, 1547 - 1558 (MI death) Eng gov & society in danger of collapse! Weak rulers, econ pressures, rebellions & religious upheaveal. (Arguably starts in 1540, with factional rivalry & great debasements.)
Ed's reign - he has very little control, but is CRUCIAL, they can do little without him. - Under Som, he mainly resides in the Privy Chamber (his bedroom.) Aged 9-12yrs so he's also at school a lot. Som controlled Royal Household & Gov. But imp - fall of Som, saying he's developed a 'cold.'
Ed under NL
- Much more active, older, more intelligent & interested in ruling.
- From 1551 attends PC meetings, 1552 - starts to write the agenda (what's to be discussed) = clearly competent. PC announce he can start to rule at 16, not 18 like H8 will stated.
- Ed used his own secretaries e.g. William Cecil. Met foreign ambassadors.
- NL = factional leader who got lucky! Careful to consult with Ed, aware what happened to Somerset - his own uncle! Learns from Som's mistakes e.g. autocratic
- NL NOT Lord Protector, instead 'Lord President of the Council' - in theory doesn't have same power as Somerset. However NL manipulates Ed by using Cranmer who has the King's ear - sows seeds in Ed's mind
- 1552 Relig Policy - 2nd Book of Common Prayer & Devise for the succession, probs down to Ed
- Ed dosen't want successor = Mary as she = Cath. Declares her a *******, has to say Eliz is too. - Lady Jane Grey (cousin, married to NL son)
Overview of Ed's reign:
- Ed was sole legit heir, but as he was age 9 upon gaining throne - the history of his reign = the history of those who ruled on his behalf.
- Ed's reformation - rests on parl authority - Coucil feels it needs more authority to pass drastic relig policy.
- Treason Act repealed - short-sighted as it got rid of detterents previously in place.
- Revisionist historians reject the concept his reign was a crisis.
- Ed's minority > decline in crown's legaslative authority, 1553 - he repeals law allowing King to repeal any law passed that year.
- Elton "Edward played no part in his reign" WK Jordan "few monarchs in history have been as well equipped for their tasks as was Ed VI"
ED's ideas - based on his Chronicle: Continue rev in gov, reforming PC - he likes Cromwell's ideas. Increase his power, believes in divine right. Possible he would have becoma Authorititarian. Prot fanatic, some believe he would have become a Puritan. Thinks every group (GCofBeing) has a role to play in society. Enjoyed entertaining foreign ambassadors.