Stakeholders and Messages

  • Created by: charlotte
  • Created on: 29-04-14 11:46

Messaging Objectives

  • Transmitted through the communication process
    • Set of words or images 
    • Meaning of communication content as perceived or intended by the individual expressing it
    • Meaning attributed to it by those receiving it
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Objectives and Messaging

  • Objectives may include targets for increasing awareness of facts, encouraging more favourable attitudes, or changing behaviour
  • Objectives may include getting messages across in the media
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Strategy and Messages

  • May have strategy concerning messages
  • May have a phased-message strategy
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Message Communication Through Tactics

  • Media
    • Media angles resonate with key messages
    • Spokespeople briefed on key messages
    • Media analysis includes analysis of messages in media coverage
  • New Media
    • Starting conversations is key
    • Less emphasis on emphatic messaging
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Analysis and Messaging

  • What has your organisation previously stated?
  • What are your competitors and or partners publically saying?
  • What are your other publics?
  • Perceptions about the topic, your organisation, your competitors, relevant issues?
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Publics and Messaging

  • Understanding publics enables creation of meaningful messages
  • Looking at different publics:
    • Make sure messages consistent
    • Make sure messages tailored to each public
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Messages and Presentation

  • Four steps
    • Looking at existing perceptions of publics
    • Define shift desired
    • Identify elements of persuasion
    • Credible and deliverable
  • Looking at different publics
    • Make sure messages tailored to each public
    • Make sure messages consistent
  • Presentation of messages
    • Format - Words, pictures
    • Tone - Serious, light-hearted
    • Context and timing
    • Reception - Often or too much?
    • Credibility - Believable? Trustworthy?
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Stakeholders - Definitions

Choo, G

'Publics and stakeholders used interchangeably'

'Having a stake or interest in an organisation'

'Stakeholders implies a closer relationship to the organisation that publics'

Difference between Publics and Stakeholders

Publics behaviour can be predicted and understood by analysing its perceptions of a certain situation

Useful for the PR in activating publics

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PR Transfer Process - Jefkins, F (1994)

  • Hostility --> Sympathy
  • Prejudice --> Acceptance
  • Apathy --> Interest
  • Ignorance --> Knowledge
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Stakeholder Mapping

  • Starting point for all planned communications
  • 1st stage strategic management based on environmental and situational analysis
  • Broad understanding of the diversity and scope of stakeholders
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Stakeholder Mapping

  • Starting point for all planned communications
  • 1st stage strategic management based on environmental and situational analysis
  • Broad understanding of the diversity and scope of stakeholders
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Identifying Different Audiences

  • Range of audiences
    • Broad categories
      • Internal to organisation
        • Staff in different regions
      • External
        • Clients, consumers, donors, investors
      • Influencers
        • Journalists, experts
    • Distinct groups
      • Employees, media, government, suppliers, distributors, financiers, customers, community, competitors
    • Sub-groups
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Types of Publics - Palmer (2000)

'An orgnaisation's relationships can be seen to have a vertical and horizontal dimension'

  • Vertical
    • Supply chain relationships
  • Horizontal
    • Collaborators and partners
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Basis for Segmentation

  • Geographic
    • Regional, national, international
  • Geo-demographic
    • ACORN, Mosaic
  • Demographic
    • Age, gender, socio-economic, socio-cultural
  • Psychographic
    • Lifestyle, values
  • Behavioural
    • Usage, benefit
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Situational Theory of Publics - Grunig and Hunt

Segmenting based on awareness and action

  • Four types of publics:
    • Non-publics - No characteristics apply
    • Latent publics - Have a problem as a result of an organisation's action but unaware of it
    • Aware publics - Groups recognise problem but are not active
    • Active publics - Groups organise activity
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Classifying Publics

  • Apathetic
    • Disregard all issues/problems
  • Single Issue
    • Active on a small set of issues/problems that has limited popular appeal
  • Hot issue
    • Active on a single issue that has significant appeal
  • All issue publics
    • Active across a wide range of issues
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Prioritising Audiences

Specific Segments

  • Reasons for focusing on particular segments
    • Profitability
    • Lack of competitor focus
    • Likelihood of success

Once Priortised Target Stakeholders

  • Conduct futher research into attitudes and behaviours
  • Learn more about the communication channels they use
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Johnson and Scholes (2002)

Developed new approachs to stakeholder analysis, focused on stakeholders impact on the organsiation, their interests, expectations, needs and power (See Mind Map for Power/Interest Matrix)

  • Power
    • Ability to influence others into following a course of action, sources of power include:
      • Hierarchy and status, charismatic leadership, control of resources, involvement in strategy implementation, possession of knowledge and skills, networks
  • Interest
    • Desire to impress expectations on the organisational purposes and choice of specific strategies
  • Predictability
    • Need to understand stakeholder predictability; if highly powerful but difficult to predict how they will react then stakeholders beocme difficult to manage; if highly powerful and predictable then their stance can be predicted and can be useful to the organisation
    • Need to build relationship and understanding to check out predictability
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Once Stakeholders are Identified

  • Conduct further awareness to understand
    • Awareness levels, attitudes and behaviour
    • Use of communications
  • Set objectives related to their awareness, attitudes or behaviours
  • Develop messages that these publics will relate to
  • Use communications that the publics engage with
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