Stage 1 - high birth rate and high death rate
- BR and DR fluctuate at a high level.
- The population remains stable but low.
- BR is high because of no contraception, family planning or education.
- BR is high because of high infant mortality - people have more children to replace others.
- DR is high as life expectancy is low because of poor healthcare, sanitation and diet - leading to starvation and disease.
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Stage 2 - high birth rate and death rate falls
- DR falls, BR remains high.
- Population increases rapidly.
- Countiries: e.g. Nepal and Afganistan.
- BR still high because of little contraception e.t.c.
- BR remains high for labour reasons - more family members mean more money.
- DR falls as life expectancy incraeses due to improved sanitaion, healthcare and diet.
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Stage 3 - birth rate falls a lot and death rate fa
- BR declines rapidly, DR falls slowly.
- Population incraeses at slower rate.
- Countries: e.g. Egypt
- BR decreases due to increased use of birth control and better education.
- BR drops as economy moves towards manifacturing - fewer children needed for work.
- BR falls due to the emancipication of women.
- BR sometimes falls due to government policy.
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Stage 4 - low birth rate and low death rate
- BR and DR fluctuate at a low level.
- Population stable but high.
- Contries: e.g. USA
- BR stays low due to access to luxuries and material possessions - can't afford to have children.
- Fewer advantages to having children - not needed for work.
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Stage 5 - birth rate drops below death rate
- BR begins to decline further than DR.
- DR remains stable.
- Population begins to decrease.
- Countries: e.g. MEDC's - Japan and UK.
- BR decreases as children are expensive to raise.
- BR also decreases because of dependent elderly relatives.
- DR remains stable as there are more elderly people so people die of old age.
- Ageing population.
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