Stages of Development
Vegetative - reflex crying noises; between 0-4 months; e.g. crying, laughing
Cooing - open mouthed vowel sounds; between 3-6 months; e.g. ooh, aaaah
Babbling - repeated constonant vowel sounds; between 6-12 months; e.g. goo goo, mamama
Proto-Word - babbling sounds that seem similar to actual words but not completely correct; between 9-12 months; e.g. 'goggie' could mean 'dog' but would have to be applied consistantly
Grammatical Stages - Holophrastic
Single words that are consistently used for specific meanings
Grammatical Stages - Two word
Two word phrases in a range of patterns
e.g. Daddy go
Grammatical Stages - Telegraphic
Speech consists of three or more words where key content words are used but grammatical function words are left out
e.g. Where Daddy gone?
Give doggie biscuit.
Grammatical Stages - Post telegraphic
Grammatical words missing from the telegraphic stage start to appear and clauses begin to be linked into larger sentences.
36 months onwards
e.g. We went to the park and played on the swings.
That's my dolly 'cos Granny bought it for me
- Usually appear at around 12 months
- By 18 months vocabulary at around 50 words
- 24 months -> 200 words
- 36 months -> 2000 words
~ most children learn about 10 words a day
Holophrastic means 'whole phrase' - a child's one word utterance may convey more than one word's meaning
e.g. if a child says 'doggie' when it walks into a room, it could mean ' look there's the dog' or 'the dog's come in'
It can also consist of two words that a child has chunked together e.g. 'wassat'
Case Study: Nelson
Four categories that make up a child's first words:
- Naming words - daddy, mummy, marmite, nana, granda
- Action words - jump, bang, cuddle, poo
- Social words - hiya, hello, please, yes, bye-bye
- Modifying words - nice, more, hot, two
Nouns make up 60% of a child's first 50 words
- these are influenced by environment
- there is a degree of personal variation - some children are 'referential' while others are 'expressive'
Extension of Meanings
Common semantic errors made by children:
Overextension - when a word is given a broader meaning than it has in adult language, so it covers more objects
These have similar properties or functions/shapes e.g. 'apple' is used to identify all kinds of fruit
Underextension - when a word is given a narrower meaning than it should have
e.g. child only understands 'banana' as the fruit not as an image
How words are constructed from their parts; e.g. base word jump or a suffix -ing or a prefix -un
Acquisition of inflections - the ways words change according to tense and who does the verb. This is shown by adding suffixes to base words
Present participle -ing e.g. I eating (verb used correctly but 'am' is missing)
Plural -s e.g. dogs
Possessive -'s e.g. Mum's
Articles, a, the e.g. a dog; the mat
Past tense -ed e.g. walked
3rd person singular present tense -s e.g. She says
Auxiliary verb, be e.g. 'Be ok' should be 'It is ok'
Children start to apply rules to their own language they have observed in action in other people's language. The rules work in many cases but do not apply to irregular words.
e.g. past tense 'to see' is 'saw' not 'seed'
past tense of 'fly' is 'flew' not 'flied'
Links to the case studt of Jean Berko's experiment
Complete mistakes but show an underlying logic.
I runned - grammatical error for the word ending of 'run'
There was two mans - plural suffix for 'man' incorrect; 'men'
There sheeps - plural suffix incorrect; missing auxiliary verb 'are'
The making up of new words
Conversion - using words as a different word class, like converting nouns into verbs
e.g. I jammed the bread
Affixation - applying endings to words to create new ones
e.g. It's crowdy in here
Compunding - joining existing words together
e.g. calling a gardener the 'plant-man'
Phonemes - units of sounds
Phonemic expansion - during the babbling stage the number of different phonemes produced by the child increases initially
Phonemic contraction - a reduction in the numbre of phonemes begins to occur normally by the age of about 9 or 10 months, focussing on the child's native language
Deletion - missing out hard to say consonants/ unstressed syllables e.g 'mou' instaed of 'mouse'
Addition - adding in a sound e.g 'horsey'
Substitution - changing letters for ones that are easier to say e.g wabbit
Cluster reduction - missing out hard phonemic combinations e.g 'sh-' 'bl-' 'cr-'
Reduplication - repeating a word/sound e.g 'quack-quack'
Relates to Berko and Brown 'fis' phenomenon
Covers how language is used in social situations to convey meanings and achieve purposes
- rules and patterns in conversation
- impled meanings