Early Language Development (Vegetative and Cooing
VEGETATIVE (0-4 Months)
- Common characteristics include CRYING, COUGHING and BURPING.
- Child expresses itself vocally by crying to signal HUNGER, DISTRESS or PLEASURE.
- These are instinctive noises- NOT LANGUAGE.
COOING A.K.A. GURLING OR MEWING (4-7 Months)
- Common characteristics include COOING, LAUGHING, CONSONANT & VOWEL SOUNDS AND PITCH & LOUDNESS.
- Examples of utterances include "Coo", "Ga-ga" and "Goo".
- Child develops increasing control over vocal chords.
Early Language Development (Babbling stage)
BABBLING (6-12 Months)
- Common characteristics include REPEATED PATTERNS, REDUPLICATED SOUNDS and EXTENDED SOUNDS & SYLLABLES.
- Easily produced sounds include:MOST IMPORTANT STAGE IN THE FIRST YEAR.
- STOPPED SOUNDS: Air is momentarily stopped from being released ('P') (Aspiration).
- REDUPLICATION: The same vowel/consonant combination is repeated.
- VARIEGATED BABBLING: As above except the vowel sounds changes (e.g. Da de).
- CONSONANT CLUSTER: Where a number of consonants are combined as in /FR/.
- Sounds begin to RESEMBLE ADULT SOUNDS more closely.
- CONSONANT & VOWEL COMBINATIONS e.g. "Ba", "Ma" and "Da".
- BILABIAL (CONSONANT) SOUNDS become more common.
- When these sounds are repeated, they are REDUPLICATED MONOSYLLABLES e.g. "Baba", "Mama" etc.
- Sounds have NO MEANING.
- Baby makes FAR MORE NOISE THAN BEFORE.
- At this stage the baby is LIKELY TO BLOW BUBBLES AND SPLUTTER.
Early Language Development (Proto-Words Stage)
PROTO-WORDS (9-12 Months)
- WORD-LIKE VOCALISATIONS.
- Word-like vocalisations, NOT MATCHING ACTUAL WORDS BUT USED CONSISTENTLY FOR THE SAME MEANING (sometimes called 'SCRIBBLE TALK')
- Examples include "MMM" TO MEAN "GIVE ME THAT" along with GESTURES such as pointing.
Lexical & Grammatical Stages of Development
HOLOPHRASTIC STAGE (12-18 Months)
- Babies start to make ONE WORD UTTERANCES e.g. "No"
TWO-WORD STAGE (18-24 Months)
- Babies start to STRING TWO WORDS TOGETHER.
TELEGRAPHIC STAGE (24-36 Months)
- THREE OR MORE WORDS get combined at this stage.
POST-TELEGRAPHIC STAGE (36 Months+)
- More GRAMMATICALLY COMPLEX COMBINATIONS are made.
- It is at this stage that the acquisition of KEY LITERACY SKILLS OF READING AND WRITING start to develop.
AGE NUMBER OF WORDS USED
18 MONTHS 50+
2 YEARS 300
5 YEARS APPROX. 3000
7 YEARS APPROX. 4000
- A child's ability to understand words WILL ALWAYS DEVELOP QUICKER THAN THEIR ABILITY TO USE THEM.
- The increase in vocabulary between age 2 to 7 is so big that the figures can only ever be an estimation.
- Children's first words relate to their IMMEDIATE SURROUNDINGS. They're connected to things that children can SEE, HEAR, TASTE, SMELL AND TOUCH, or that have a SOCIAL FUNCTION. Words that EXPRESS CONCEPTS AND MORE ABSTRACT IDEAS start to appear as the child becomes MORE SELF-AWARE AND EXPERIENCES MORE OF THE WORLD.
- As they get older, children's vocabulary continues to increase, and their grammar becomes more accurate and complex. It's difficult to know for sure, but it's been estimated that 11-year-olds have a VOCABULARY OF AROUND 40,000 WORDS.
Brown's Stages of Inflection Acquisition
1) PRESENT PARTICLE -ING e.g. I goING (although am will still be me missing)
2) PLURAL -S e.g. CupS
3) POSSESSIVE 'S e.g. Teddy'S chair
4) ARTICLES (A, THE) e.g. Get THE ball
5) PAST TENSE -ED e.g. I kickED it
6) THIRD PERSON SINGULAR VERB ENDING -S e.g. She loveS me
7) AUXILIARY 'BE' e.g. It IS raining
- A and THE are used MOST FREQUENTLY, and -ED least frequently, but they're fourth and fifth in terms of acquisition. This suggests that IMITATION DOESN'T HAVE A STRONG INFLUENCE ON HOW CHILDREN ACQUIRE INFLECTIONS.
- The -ING inflection is acquired the EARLIEST - probably because it represents the present tense, and the child will relate more to things happening 'now', than in the past or the future.