Sports Psychology

Andy- Confidence

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Self confidence

Self Confidence- You believe that you can perform a desired behaviour

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Trait Confidence

Trait Confidence- Confidence over a range of situations 

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State Confidence

State Confidence- Confidence in individual situations, affected by performers percieved ability at the task

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Belief is important but cannot make you perform better than your skill level

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Optimal self confidence

Optimal self confidence is when you feel sure you can achieve your goals

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Self Concept

Self Concept- Description of you across different roles you have in life, includes your skills/abilities, appearence, social self, academic self and relationships.

It is a fluid concept

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What confidence is based on

Confidence is based on your level of competitiveness and achievement motivation (personality), amount of past success, your belief to succeed in future and the situation

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Vealeys self confidence model

Self confidence is influenced by a variety of sources and not just from an athletes internal thoughts

Factors i.e. age, gender

Sources i.e support, skills

Constructs i.e confidence in decisions or physical skills

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Self Esteem

Self esteem is how confident you are in yourself

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Methods of improving confidence

Methods of improving confidence


Vicarious experience


Physical and mental preparation

Environmental comfort

Effective leadership

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Self Efficacy

Self efficacy is self confidence in a specific situation, it affects choice of activity, effort and persistance levels

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Goal Setting

Goal setting benefits

Reduces social loafing and improves cohesion

Maintain motivation and task persistance

Sustained effort

Improve confidence

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Chris- Arousal

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Arousal- A state of physiological and psychological activation

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Inverted U theory

Inverted U- Higher arousal = higher performance until optimal when it will start to decrease

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Catastrophe Theory

Catastrophe Theory

Steady increase with higher arousal = higher performance, until optimal when you get heavy decline.

Something may cause the drop

Break may be taken to steady

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IZOF theory

IZOF theory 

Individualized zone of optimal functionality

Each person has their own zone of arousal to perform their best.


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Drive theory

Drive Theory

Increase in arousal is proportional to increase in performance.

Only works on well learnt compound tasks

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Factors affected

Factors affected by arousal

Attention span

Aggression levels

Stress and anxiety levels

Flow states


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How factors are impacted

Effects of arousal 

Under aroused= lack of concentration and attention

Moderate arousal= good selective attention and concentration

Over arousal= Lose focus, miss cues, become anxious, muscle tension, poor decision making

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Flow States

Flow states

Positive flow state- movements feel easy, focused, positive thoughts

Negative flow state- too tense or too relaxed, negative thoughts, things keep going wrong

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Stress- A mental or emotional response of the body to any demand placed on it

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Eustress- good form of stress, helps increase levels + focus, attention of performance, increase intrinsic motivation

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Bad form of stress

Extreme anxiety, nerves or worry

Percieved inability

Increased arousal + performance drop

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Internal sources of stress

Internal sources of stress

Thoughts, feelings, beliefs, trait anxious, self esteem

High trait anxious people find all comps stressful

People with low SE have less confidence

Increased doubts

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External sources of stress

External sources of stress

Event importance, uncertainty of outcome

The more important event the more stress 

The more uncertain an outcome the more stress

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Stress Response Model

Stress response model

Environmental demands (penalty in WC)

Perception of demands, make a judgement (penalty may be comfortable or not)

Stress response (physical or physchological)

Actual behaviour (how well you perform the skill)

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Symptoms of stress

Symptoms of stress

Sympathetic nervous system- speeds up

Inc Heart/Breathing rate, increased adrenaline, dry mouth

Parasympathetic nervous system- slows down

Helps body relax, body temp, HR & BR decrease

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Anxiety- A negative emotional state associated with feelings of nervousness, apprehension or worry

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Trait Anxiety

Trait Anxiety

General disposition of a performer to percieve situations as threatening

Naturally anxious people will feel apprehensive 

More likely to be state anxious

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State anxiety

State Anxiety

This occurs in a particular situation

Linked to mood so can change from oment to moment

Influenced by trait anxiety

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Cognitive Anxiety

Cognitive Anxiety

Reduced concentration

Nerves or worry

Unable to make decisions

Sleep disturbance

Unable to relax and lose temper quickly

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Somatic anxiety

Somatic Anxiety

Racing HR

Faster breathing


Chest tightness, dry mouth

Feeling under prepared

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Behavioural Anxiety

Behavioural Anxiety

Playing it safe

Talking, eating or walking quickly



Accidents/ clumsy

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competitive anxiety theory

Competitive anxiety theory- 

How anxious= levels of trait anxiety and importance of event

= how tense or relaxed

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Multidimensional theory

Multidimensional theory

Relationship between state anxiety + performance

In 3 parts (cognotive and somatic state anxiety and self confidence

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Reversal theory

Reversal theory

Says that effect that arousal has on performance is dependant on how arousal levels are seen by the individual. Could percieve high arousal as a challenge

Dependant on personality and optimal arousal levels

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Consequences of Stress & anxiety negative

Negative consequences of anxiety and stress

Negative mental state, loss of self confidence, decrement in performance, possible injury (hormonal response cause weak tissue), agression

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Consequences of Stress & anxiety positive

Positive responses of stress and anxiety

Positive mental state, improved self confidence, improvement in performance, increased energy, motivation and focus

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Aggressive Act

Aggressive Act

Any form of behaviour directed towards the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.

Must be physical or verbal

Must involve causing harm or injury

Towards another living being

Intent to cause harm

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Assertive behaviour

Assertive behaviour

Playing with high energy and emotion but within the rules of the game

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Hostile Aggression

Hostile Aggression

Acts of aggression with the goal to inflict harm or injury for the sake of it

Accomponied by anger

Frustration builds up

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Relational Aggression

Relational Aggression

Spreading negative rumours or ostracising someone socially

Can lead to peer rejection

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Instrumental aggression

Instrumental aggression

Acts of aggression used for a non aggressive goal. Not accompinied by anger

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Instinct theory

Instinct theory

All people have an instinctive inborn need or tendancy to be aggressive that builds up until it needs to be expressed

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Social Learning theory

Social learning theory

Learnt through modelling and imititave behaviour

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Frustration- Aggression theory

Frustration- Aggression theory

Direct result of frustration due to failure or goal blockage

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Adapted frustration- aggression theory

Adapted Frustration- Agression theory

Acknowledges role of socially learned cues can lead to not repeating behaviour

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Outcome goals

Outcome goals

To do with results and success based

If realistic, motivation maintained

Not realistic, not achieved, lost motivation- stress

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Task Orientated goals

Task orientated goals

Improvements in technique or performance

Can be achieved even without a win

Make evaluation based on own performance

Known as performance or process goals

Performance goals are against previous performances

Process goals are improvements in technique

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Mastery goals

Mastery Goals

Set with the aim of mastering specific skills and techniques

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Thought Stopping

Thought Stopping

Involves recognising that the athlete has started to worry. Use of a trigger word

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Self Talk Uses

Self Talk Uses

Building self confidence

Arousal control

Add encouragement pre-performance

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Interactive team

Interactive team

Outcome of performance depends on interaction and co-ordination of team

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Co-Active team

Co-Active team

Members are performing the same skills at the same time together

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Tuckmans Theory

Tuckmans theory

Forming- Members become familiar, know roles, asses strengths and weaknesses, decide if they belong

Storming- Conflicts begin, question leader, try to gain important roles

Norming- Conflicts subside, co-operation + stability,  work to goals, cohesion develops

Performing- progress + function as a unit, no conflict, own decisions and responsibility, motivation is high and function is best

Adjourning- Take a break, successful teams may move backwards 

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Ringlemann effect theory

Ringlemann effect

As group size increases, individual productivity of people in the group decreases up to 50%

People aren't accountable and can hide

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Social Loafing Theory

Social Loafing

Group members dont put in 100% 

Group situation= lost motivation

When performers percieve they are not being recognised for their effort

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Steiners model of group effectiveness

Steiners model of group effectiveness

Actual productivity (current achievement) = Potential productivity (perfect performance team could achieve given ability and resources) - faulty processes (issues that obstruct performance, Motivational (giving 100%) or coordination (poor performance, interaction or personal circumstances))

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Autocratic leader

Autocratic leader- when the leader makes the decisions

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Democratic leader

Democratic leader- When the leader includes the group in decisions

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Emergent leader

Emergent leader- when a leader comes around naturally

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Proscribed leader

Proscribed leader- a leader appointed from an external source

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Chelladurais model

Chelladurais model

Change the leaership style based on the situation to best affect the team.

They need to be flexible

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