Personality = the sum total of an invididuals characteristics
Trait: innate, stable, enduring characteristics that are consistant over a variety of situations
Eysenck; Extroversion - Outgoing/Lively | Introversion - Quiet/Unsociable | Stable - Calm/Peaceful | Unstable - Moody/Anxious
Cattell's 16PF; eg reserved - outgoing / relaxed - tense
Girdano; Type A - Competitive, Desire to Success | Type B - Unambitious, Uncompetitive
SLT: Behaviour is determined by the environment. We observe and copy behaviour of significant others.
Interactionist: Behaviour is determined by a mix of a persons traits and the situation.
B = f(P) (Trait) | B = f(E) (SLT) | B = f(PxE) (Interactionist)
An attitude is a pre-disposition/belief towards something.
Affective = Emotions Behavioural = How You Act Cognitive = Knowledge/Belief
Eg, I like jogging // I jog 5 times a week // I know jogging will help me stay fit
If all 3 are congruent the attitude is strong.
Changing Attitudes: Cognitive Dissonance - Changing one componant to create disharmony then an attitude will change. usually the behavioural element
Persuasive Communication -
The Persuader - needs to be significant
The Message - needs to be positive
The Situation - Easier if other persuaders are present
The Recipient - Needs to want to change their attitude
How?? -> 1) Observations 2) Interviews 3) Psychometric Testing
- Lack of Proof that E & P are linked to sport
- Lack of Evidence about ideal sports personality
- Subjective as it is interpretations and is influenced by opinions
- Results are often Invalid
- Performers may change behaviour to fit a certain profile
- Self Report Questionairres are not often truthful
- Danger of stereotyping a person/performer
Attribution - reasons given by a performer to explain success or failure
Weinars Model - Internal(you) / Extenal(env.) | Stable(cant change) / Unstable(change)
This wants to be attributed to Internal, Unstable reasons like
Attributional Retraining - changing the perception of causes of failure
Mastery Orientation - the strong desire to succed. Failure is a stepping stone to success
Learned Helplesness - the belief that failure is inevitable