Sport Studies Revision Cards

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The Cardiovascular System has 3 Components

  • The Heart
  • Blood
  • Blood Vessels

The cardiovascular system has a double circuit

Each time blood goes around - it goes around twice - round both sides of the heart

1) Oxgenated Blood carried via arteries

2) deoxgenated blood carreid via viens

3) carries deoxgenated blood ready to be oxygenated again

4) blood is pumped back to the heart and ready to be pumped around the body

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Short Term Effects of Exercise

The Muscular System

  • Muscles will contract - isometrically or isotonically
  • Temperature of muscles will rise
  • Muscles will work harder

The Respiratory System

  • Breathing Rate increases
  • You breathe nore deeply
  • These two thing will remain high until you have repayed oxygen debt (anaerobic exercise)

The Cardiovascular System

  • Heart Rate increases
  • Blood pressure increases
  • Heart pumps more blood around the body in one beat (stroke volume)
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Long Term Effects of Exercise

The Muscular System

  • Muscle fibres get stronger
  • Muscles get thicker - HYPERTROPHY
  • Tolerance to lactic acid increases
  • Strength will increase

The Cardiovascular System

  • Heart gets bigger and stronger
  • Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output increase
  • Resting heart rate decreases
  • Blood pressure falls/blood vessels get stronger

The Respiratory System

  • Chest Cavity gets larger
  • Vital Capacity increases - able to exercise for longer
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Health Related Components of Fitness

  • Cardiovascular Endurance - the ability to exercise the body for a long period of time
  • Muscular Strength - The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance
  • Muscular Endurance - the ability of a muscle or a group of muscles to perform repeated contractions
  • Flexibility - the range of movement at a joint
  • Body Composition - the percentage of body that is muscle, fat and bone
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Skill Related Components of Fitness

  • Agility - the ability to change direction quickly whilst keeping your balance
  • Balance - the ability to keep the centre of mass over a base of support
  • Co-Ordination - the ability to move two or more body parts at the same time
  • Power - the ability to undertake strength perfomances - Power = Strength x Speed
  • Reaction Time - the time taken to react to a stimulas
  • Speed - The time it takes to cover a certain distance
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Different Body Types

Endomorph - Sumo Wrestler

  • They have wide hips but narrow shoulders, they carry a lot of fat on their body, arms and legs.
  • Ankles and wrists are usually slim

Ectomorph - Long Distance Runner

  • They have narrow shoulders and hips, not too much muscle or fat.
  • Long, thin arms and legs, thin face and a high forehead

Mesomorph - Sprinter

  • Wide shoulders, and narrow hips
  • Muscular body, strong arms and thighs - not much body fat to deal with.
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