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The Five Spelling Stages

Pre-phonetic - Imitate writing, mainly scribbling and using pretend writing; some letters & shapes are decipherable 

Semi-phonetic - Link letter shapes & sounds, using this to write words

Phonetic - Understand that all phonemes can be represented by graphemes; words become more complete

Transitional - Combine phonetic knowledge with visual memeory; an awareness of combinations of letters and letter patterns, including the 'magic e' rule

Conventional - Spell most words correctly 

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Main types of spelling error made by children

Insertion - Adding extra letters

Omission - Leaving out letters

Substitution - Substituting one letter for another

Transposition - Reversing the correct order of letters in words

Phonetic spelling - Using sound awareness to guess letters & combinations of letters

Over/undergeneralisation of spelling rules - Overgeneralising of a rule where it is not appropriate to apply it, or undergeneralising it by only applying it on specific context

Salient (key) sounds - Writing only the key sounds

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