3 Part Exchange
3 utterances linked in an obvious way, usually rallied between 2 speakers. E.g. A asks a question, B answers, A provides feedback or a comment.
2 utterances linked in an obvious or clear way, always said by different speakers. E.g. Question/Answer; Greeting/Returned Greeting; Apology/Acceptance.
Feedback offered by one or more listeners to the main speaker, taking the form of minimal responses and non-verbal communication such as nods and/or laughter.
A question with few possible answers, or with a narrow field of response. E.g. "Did you like the film?" rather than a more open question like "Can you tell me about the film?"
A word or phrase that is common in spoken language but not in written Standard English. E.g. 'ain't'.
2 words that are reduced into 1 using an apostrophe. E.g. 'can't/wouldn't'.
A reference to something within the context of the interaction. E.g. that 'can you pass me that?' or him 'did you speak to him yet?'. It can alternatively be a time reference such as yesterday/next week - because we don't know the date of the interaction, we don't know when they refer to.
A word that indicates a change of (or return to) topic. E.g. anyway, well, as I was saying.
Missing out a sound within a word. E.g. intrest, goin'. Note that these words may or may not be marked with an apostrophe.
Missing out a word, often a noun or pronoun. E.g. "better get on with it", where it could of be 'I'd, S/He'd, we'd, or you'd.
Changing tack a short way into a sentence.
A word that is found to have no/little meaning. Speakers often have preffered fillers; they form part of our idiolect. E.g. like, innit.
Repetition of the subject at the start of a sentence but in a different form. E.g. Clare, she's really nice. OR. That girl, I really like her. A head can be a single word or a longer phrase.
"Padding" that is added to bold statements, often intentionally in order to soften a request of statement. E.g. kind of, probably, could be.
An individual way of talking. It is often characterised by dialect terms, favoured fillers, discourse markers, and any use of language that distinguishes them from the majority.
Vocabulary shared by a group, often a form of slang or catchphrase/buzzword. It is used to show membership or belonging.
Utterances by different speakers which follow on (with no pauses) are said to "latch". They can show enthusiasm/shared purpose/agreement.
These are usually represented by a (.). It shows a very brief pause, that acts as punctuation or possibly a hesitation/thinking time in spontaneous speech.
Preferred term (not incorrect, bad, or poor grammar). Common in speech even of the educated.
Filler which is not technically a word. E.g. "umm" or "erm".
A question with many possible responses; and allows the speaker more of a choice of topic/conversation direction.
Participants speaking at the same time, on the same topic. More positive than interruption; usually shows enthusiasm or a high degree of interaction.
Utterance having little meaning but a social purpose. E.g. "hello, how are you?".
Repetition of a word or phrase, often due to having thinking time or hesitation. If done deliberately for impact, it is known as repetition, not recycling.
Correcting oneself - sometimes an utterance could be described as self-repair or a false start.
Informal spoken language which is usually group-specific.
Low-register language which is inappropriate in many social settings.
Clause "tagged on" at the end of an utterance. E.g. "She's really happy today, Sarah is". May be a tag question. "She's really happy today, isn't she?" Tag questions can be rhetorical or an invite comment.
Note - Tags must include a verb.
Similar to a tag, but doesn't include a verb. Also similar to a head, but at the end of an utterance. E.g. "I really love chips, me".
Terms of address
The way people refer to each other. Formal terms of address are ususally titles. E.g. Dr/Reverend/Mrs (and so on). Informally, we tend to use first names, or terms of endearment such as "love" or "hon".
Always timed in seconds, usually represented as (1); (0.5), etc. They often don't mean anything except that the speech is spontaneous; may punctuate longer utterances; can show uncertainty of an unwillingness/hesitation to voice the utterance that follows.
Anything that is imprecise or woolly. More specifically:
- Expressions such as "and that", "or whatever", at the ends of statements. They are often used like hedges.
- Non-specific nouns like "whatsit" and "thingymajig".
- Hedges, including the addition of -ish, or -y. E.g. "It's a cakey sort of thing".
Same as non-verbal filler.