Speech Checklist

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Phonological Development

DELETION - leaving off the last consonant or leaving unstressed syllables
SUBSTITUTION - swapping a sound for an easier one
ASSIMILATION - changing a sound so that it becomes more like a nearby sound 
CONSONANT CLUSTER REDUCTION - reducing pairs of consonants to single ones
REDUPLICATION - repeating a whole syllable
ADDITION - adding an extra vowel sound 
FIS PHONEMONEN - know what a word should sound like but just can't say it
PROSODIC FEATURES - exaggerated sing song intonation, higher pitch, speak slower, frequency
cooing is just noises like coo, gaaa, aaaah, & babbling is dadda, tata, babaa 
CRUTTENDEN'S STUDY - football results, study on adults and children guess of the next score based on the intonation of a first team's results.

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Lexical Development

PROTO WORDS - a made up word that has a consistent meaning for the user
LEXICAL FIELDS - the type of lexis used based on a certain topic/subjecy (lexical field of school)
OVEREXTENSION - one word is used for a whole category e.g. Apple is used for all fruits
UNDEREXTENSION - not understanding one word can be ither objects e.g. a banana is only the object a child eats. Pictures of bananas aren't bananas
OBJECT PERMANENCE -  child understands an object still exists even though it is not in sight
REFERENTIAL - mainly naming words (nouns)
EXPRESSIVE - mainly social words and feelings (adjectives)
KATHRINE NELSON'S CATEGORIES - Naming Words, Action/Event words, Describing/Modifying things, Personal/Social words

  • Labelling - linking words to the objects to which they refer, understanding things can be labeled. 
  • Pacakaging - exploring the labels and to what they can apply (overextension and underextension occurs in order to understand the range of a word's meaning)
  •  Network Building - making connections between words, understanding similarities & opposites in meaning
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Grammatical Development

MORPHEMES - single smallest unit of meaning 
HOLOPHRASES - one word conveys several meanings/complex messages
TELEGRAPHIC - dropping words that are of less importance (function words)
POST TELEGRAPHIC -  the remaining function words are acquired and used appropriately
CONTENT WORDS - words with most meaning (nouns, verbs, adjectives, naming functions)
FUNCTION WORDS -  words that are grammatically less important (determiners, adverbs, prepositions, auxiliary verbs)
AUXILIARY VERBS - a helper verb (must should must)
COMPARATIVES - morpheme ER makes it a comparative adjective
SUPERLATIVES - morpheme EST makes it a superlative adjective
DETERMINERS - a modifying word that determines the reference to a noun (this that one an some)
PREPOSITIONS - where something is, a position word (above below next to beside)

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Grammatical Development pt. 2

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS - a conjunction placed between a word or phrase (and but or)
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS - a conjunction that introduces a subordinating clause (although because therefore)
OVERGENERALISATION - overgeneralising grammatical rules such as making plurals or making something into the past tense.
VIRTUOUS ERRORS - a child makes a mistake by overgeneralising a grammatical rule
JEAN BERKO WUG TEST - showed that morphological inflections can be used on even made up words, a child understands the grammatical rules behind a word and its morphological inflections (plurals, possession, verb tense)
ROGER BROWN'S STUDY - showed that children acquire grammatical markers at certain ages (ing, prepositions, irregular past tenses, possessives, use of 'the' and 'a', adding 's' tp third person verbs, regular past tenses, use of auxiliary verbs)
ACTIVE - the person doing the act is the subject of the sentence
[The doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action] (jack broke the door)
PASSIVE -  the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence
[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]
(the door was broke by jack)
SYNTAX - word order 

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Pragmatic Development


  • INSTRUMENTAL - 'I want' function, language is used for personal needs (asking, pleading, stating, demanding)
  • REGULATORY -  'do as i tell you' function, language is used to control behaviours of others (directing commanding, persuading, hinting, threatening)
  • INTERACTIONAL - 'me and you', 'hello!' or 'I see you' function, language is used to begin/maintain interaction (establishing roles and relationships, requiring aid, attracting attention, co-operating, refusing roles)
  • PERSONAL - 'here I come' function, language is used to express personal feelings (commenting on own actions, expressing feelings, reacting against other' feelings)
  • HEURISTIC - 'tell me why' or 'i can find out' function, language is used to find information and knowledge and to learn the how and why of things (questions testing out ideas)
  • IMAGINITIVE - 'let's pretend' funtion, language is used to create new worlds: used and learnt from stories (creating stories, songs, jokes, rhymes, riddles, role play, imagining)
  • INFORMATIVE - 'i've got something to tell you' function, language is used to communicate information (reporting, recalling, stating, retelling, affirming, describing, answering, explaining, predicting, being informed, justifying)
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Pragmatic Development pt. 2


  • LABELLING - child names objects while playing but does not address anyone present
  • REPEATING - child repeats a word overheard but doesn't await a response
  • ANSWERING -  child responds to a question
  • REQUESTING (ACTION) - child asks for help to perform some action 
  • REQUESTING (ANSWER) - child asks a question 
  • CALLING -  child addresses someone some distance away
  • GREETING -  child welcomes a newcomer 
  • PROTESTING - child shouts, screams etc. at something unwanted 
  • PRACTISING - child utters some word with no apparent stimulus or motive, does not address it to anyone present 
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Theorists and Theories

PIAGET - Linguistic structures can be spoke when a child understands it's concept (cognitivice development) e.g. past tense 
SKINNER - Children learn language through imitation
BRUNER - Looked at LASS (Language Acquisition Support System), adults alter the way they speak to engage children in conversation (Child Directed Speech)
CHOMSKY - Children are born with a LAD (Language Acquisition Device) to help develop language
BELLUGI - 3 stages of pronoun use and negative formations 
BERKO - Studied morphological development, carried out the wug test to test her theory
CRUTTENDEN - Studied intonation patterns between adults and children in football results
BROWN - Language development was based on a child's mean length of utterance

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Theorists and Theories pt. 2

AITCHISON - 3 stages of a child's development: labelling/packaging/network building 
RESCORLA - 3 overextension categories: Categorical/Analogical/Mismatch
CLARK - Common adjectives such as nice and big are amongst a child's first 50 words but spatial adjectives such as wide and narrow are acquired later
HALLIDAY - Came up with 7 functions of a child's language (Instrumental, Regulatroy, Interactional, Personal, Heuristic, Imaginitive, Informative/Representional)
NELSON - Came up with 4 first word categories: Naming Words/Action/Modifying/Social 
LENNENBERG - Critical Period Hypothesis, limited period in which language develops
BARD AND SACHS - Studied Jim finding children need human contact to speak properly
DORE - 9 functions of one word utterances (Labelling, Repeating, Answering, Action, Answer, Calling, Greeting, Protesting, Practising) 

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