As an organsim develops, some of their cells become specialised to carry out a specific function. This is called differentation. The cell's structure is specially adapted to perform its perticular function.
Function: Absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
Adaptation: Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight
Root Hair Cell
Function: Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil
Adaptation: Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.
Function: Fertilises an egg cell
Adaptation: The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.
Red Blood Cell
Function: Contain haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells.
Adaptation: Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin.