Specialised Cells

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Palisade Leaf Cell

Are adapted for photosynthesis by:

  • Packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis-so more crammed at top of cell (nearer to the light)
  •  Tall shape means more surface area exposed down side for absorbing CO2 from air in the leaf
  • Thin shape means you can pack loads of them at top of leaf

Palisade leaf cells- grouped together at top of leaf where most of photosynthesis happens.

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Guard Cells

Guard Cells  are adapted to open & close pores

  • Special kidney shape which opens  & closes  the stomata (pores) in a leaf
  • When plant has lots of water, guard cells fill with it & go plump and turgid.
    • Makes the stomata open so gases can be exchanged for photosynthesis
  • Plant is short of water, guard cells lose water & become flaccid (making stomata close)
    • Helps to stop too much water vapour escaping
  • Thin outer wals & thickened inner walls make the opening & closing work
  • Also sensitive to light & close at night to save water, without losing out on photosynthesis

Guard cells- adapted to their function of allowing gas exchange & controlling water loss within a leaf

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Red Blood Cells

Red Blood Cells are addapted to carry oxygen

  • Concave shape give a bigger surface area for absorbing oxygen
      • Also helps them pass smoothly through capillaries  to reach the body cells
  • Packed with haemoglobin (pigment that absorbs the oxygen)
  • No nucleus- leaves more room for haemoglobin


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Sperm & Egg Cells

Sperm & Egg Cells are specialised for REPRODUCTION

  • Main functions of egg cell- to carry female DNA & to nourish the developing embryo in early stages.
    • Contains huge food reserves  to feed emrbyo
  • Sperm fuses with egg, egg's membrane instantly changes its structure to stop any more sperm getting in.
    • Makes sure the offspring ends up with right amount of DNA
  • Function of the sperm is to get male DNA to female DNA
    • Long tail & streamlined head to help swim ro egg
    • Lot of mitochondria in cell to provide energy needed.
    • Carry enzymes in head  to digest through egg cell membrane
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