Detailed overview of structure of Spartan army around 400BC
· He says the organization was based in a row eight men deep. Four of the rows formed an enomotia or platoon
· Four enomotia formed a pentekostis or company which was commanded by a Penkoner
· Four pentekostis formed a locas or battalion under leader of Lockayos
· The average army had about 7 lochois, giving the total of around 3,500 men
- Now the average row was 12 men deep, while only two of these rows were needed to form an enomotia
- Two enomotia fomed a pentekostis
- Two pentekostis formed a lochos,
- Four Lochos formed a mora, or regiment under the command of a Ptolemarch
- An army consisted of 6 morae
- Decreasing Spartan population did affect the strength of the army, but not the strength of a Morae, which had 500, 600, or 900 men.
- The number varied depending on the age of hoplites used.
· 8 rows deep
· Moving in formation
· Nearly unstoppable so long as their rear and flanks were protected
· Perfect for combat on open ground or level terrain
THE ROYAL GUARD- Plutarch, Agesilaus
When Paedarchs, the Spartan was not selected to be one of the kings 300 elite soldiers, an honour which was the highest in the state… he departed cheerful and smiling… with the remark that he was well satisfied… the state possessed 300 citizens who were better than himself.
ROLES OF THE ARMY
· Military- operating throughout the Peloponnesian League, the Spartan army was responsible for the defence of Sparta and her allies from any external threat whether it be Greek or Persian
· Civic- All Warriors were citizens who made decisions about war and peace as members of the assemblies
· Domestic- Suppresion of helots (Krypteia)
· Economic- Consumers of goods produced by Perioikoi and Helots.
· Ideological- Military values i.e. Heroism, unity, loyalty, obedience and sacrifice.