Spanish Verb Conjugations

The Present Tense


  • same usage a English present tense to express what is happening at the present time and what happens regularly


  • following endings are added to the stem of the verb
  • -ar: -o, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an
  • -er: -o, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en
  • -ir: -o, -es, -e, -imos,  -ís, -en
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Irregulars in the present

Dar: doy, das, da, damos, dáis, dan
Decir: digo, dices, dice, decimos, dec
ís, dicen
Estar: estoy, est
ás, está, estamos, estáis, estan
Haber: he, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han
Hacer: hago, haces, hace, hacemos, hac
éis, hacen
Ir: voy, vas, va, vamos, v
áis, van
ír: oígo, oyes, oye, oímos, oís, oyen
Poner: pongo, pones, pone, ponemos, pon
éis, ponen
Saber: s
é, sabes, sabe, sabemos, sabéis, saben
Salir: salgo, sales, sale, salimos, sal
ís, salen
Ser: soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son
Tener: tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, ten
éis, tienen
Venir: vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, ven
ís, vienen
Ver: veo, ves, ve, vemos, veis, ven 

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The Preterite Tense


  • very similar to the "simple past" in English
  • uses one word to describe a single completed action


  • same stem as for the present tense
  • following endings are added to the stem of the verb
  • -ar:  é, aste, ό, ámos, astais, aron
  • -er:  í, iste, iό, imos, isteis, ieron\
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Formation of irregular verbs in the pretirite

"Ser" and "Ir" have the same form in the pretirite

Context is used to work out which verb is being used

Ser/Fui: fui, fuise, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron

Other irregulars: tener, estar

tener: tuve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, tuvisteis, tuvieron
estar: estuve, estuviste, estuvo, estuvimos, estuvisteis, estuvieron

Decir, Conducir

Decir: dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron
Conducir: conduje, condujiste, condujo, condujimos, condujisteis, codujeron 

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The Imperfect Tense


  • to describe what somaething was like in the past i.e descriptions
  • to say what someone or something used to do
  • to describe an ongoing action in the past


  • following endings are added to the stem of the verb
  • the endings for -er and -ir verbs are the same
  • -ar: -aba, -abas, -aba, ábamos, abais, aban
  • -er/-ir:  -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían


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Formations of Irregular verbs in the Imperfect

Ser: era, eras, era, éramos, erais, eran
Ir: iba, ibas, iba, ibamos, ibais, iban
Ver: ve
ía, veías, veía, veíamos, veíais, veían

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The Perfect Tense


  • as in English, perfect tense describes an action in the immediate past
  • action is still relevant to the ongoing situation


  • made up of 2 parts
  • part 1: present tense of the auxiliary verb haber
  • part 2: the past participle
  • regular past participle formation: take off the ending and add -ado for -ar verbs, and     -ido for -er and -ir verbs
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The Pluperfect Tense


  • Compound tense used to talk about what "had" happened


  • made up of 2 parts
  • part 1: imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb haber
  • part 2: the past participle 
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Immediate Future Tense


  • to talk about the near future
  • something that "is going to" happen


  • made up of 3 parts
  • part 1: present tense of auxiliary verb "ir"
  • part 2: "a"
  • part 3: the infinitive 
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The Future Tense


  • used to make predictions and statements about the future
  • when it is used, tone is more formal than the immediate future

Formation of regular verbs:

  • most verbs have a regular future tense
  • endings are added to the infintitive
  • same endings for all 3 conjugations
  • -ar/-ir/-er: é, ás, á, emos, éis, án
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Irregular verbs in the future

Some verbs have an irregular future stem

Decir: dir-
Hacer: har-
Poder: podr-
Poner: pondr-
Querer: querr-
Saber: sabr-
Salir: saldr-
Tener: tendr-
Venir: vendr-
Caber: cabr-
Valer: valdr- 

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The Conditional Tense


  • used to talk aout what would happen/how something would be
  • conditional of deber is used with an infinitive to talk about what someone ought/should do
  • conditional of poder is used to describe what someone could do


  • future tense stem with the conditional endings
  • endings are the same for all 3 conjugations
  • -ar/-ir/-er:  ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían
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The Subjunctive Mood


  • sometimes known as "moods"
  • used to convey speaker's attitude to the action described
  • used after verbal expresions that convey wishes, advice, reuests that smoeone else should do something
  • after verbal expressions that convey joy, hope, sorrow, anger, fear and other emotional reactions
  • after verbal expressions that convey doubt, uncertainty, possibility, probability 
  • after conjunctions that imply intention that something should happen or conditions for something to happen
  • after cuando or hasta que when referring to the future
  • in some forms of the imperative
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The Subjunctive Mood continued


  • take "yo" form of present tense of the verb
  • replace "o" ending with following endings
  • endings for -er, and -ir are the same
  • ar: e, es, e, emos,  éis, en
  • er/ir: a, as, a, amos, áis, an


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